Trent

Trent

[trent]
Lott, Trent (Chester Trent Lott), 1941-, American politician, b. Grenada, Miss. Lott attended college and law school at the Univ. of Mississippi, then briefly (1967) worked with a private law firm. He entered politics as an assistant to a Democratic Mississippi congressman (1968-72). Already a conservative, he became a Republican and was elected to the House of Representatives in 1972, serving as House Republican whip from 1981 to 1989, when he began his first term in the Senate. He became Senate whip in 1995, and when the majority leader, Bob Dole, resigned to run for the presidency in mid-1996, Senate Republicans chose the gregarious, telegenic, and more strongly conservative Lott to succeed him. Lott was subsequently minority leader (2001-3), resigning after he was widely criticized for remarks at a birthday party for Senator Strom Thurmond in which he implied that the United States would have better off if the 1948 presidential election had been won by Thurmond (who ran on a segregationist platform). Lott was chairman of the Senate committee on rules and administration from 2003 to 2007, when he again became Senate Republican whip, but he resigned his seat at the end of 2007.

See his autobiography (2005).

Trent, Ital. Trento, Latin Tridentum, city (1991 pop. 101,545), capital of Trentino-Alto Adige and of Trent prov., N Italy, on the Adige River and on the road to the Brenner Pass. It is an industrial and tourist center. Manufactures include leather goods, machinery, metals, textiles, printed materials, and food products. Probably founded in the 4th cent. B.C., Trent was later the seat of a Lombard duchy (6th cent.) and of a Frankish march (8th cent.). To safeguard their road into Italy the emperors invested (11th cent.) the bishops of Trent with temporal powers over a sizable territory; a succession of prince-bishops ruled, except for a few short intervals, until 1802, when the bishopric was secularized and became a part of Tyrol in Austria. Because Trent had always been Italian in language and culture, there developed a strong movement for union with Italy (see irredentism). Union was achieved in 1919 by the Treaty of Saint-Germain. Among the city's monuments are the Lombard Romanesque cathedral; the Castello del Buon Consiglio (13th-16th cent.), once the episcopal residence, later a political prison, and now the seat of the National Museum; and a bronze statue of Dante Alighieri (1896). The Council of Trent met there in the 16th cent.
Trent, river, c.170 mi (270 km) long, rising on Biddulph Moor, Staffordshire, W England. It flows generally NE through central England before joining with the Ouse River to form the Humber estuary. The Trent, the third longest river of England, passes through the Potteries district, Burton upon Trent, and Nottingham. Its chief tributary is the River Dove. There is a high tidal bore in the lower course of the Trent. It is navigable for barges to Nottingham; canals connect it with other river systems. Water from the Trent is used as coolant in thermal power plants along its course.
Trent, Council of, 1545-47, 1551-52, 1562-63, 19th ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church, convoked to meet the crisis of the Protestant Reformation. Earlier efforts at reforming the church had already produced the Fifth Lateran Council (1512-17), but it had proved ineffectual. The rise of Lutheranism brought forth a church-wide reaction that was strongly anti-Lutheran. It hoped for a new council, and when Paul III was elected pope in 1534 such a council seemed assured (see Counter Reformation). The obstacles, however, took 10 years to overcome, for now that a known reformer was pope, those opposing reform were not eager for a meeting.

The Meetings of the Council

The Protestants at first stipulated that it be held in Germany, while the pope insisted on an Italian venue. Mantua was chosen, but its duke refused; then Venice prevented a meeting at Vicenza. Finally Trent, an imperial city, almost in Italy, was selected as a compromise between the papal party and that of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. There was an abortive start in 1542.

In 1544 the pope convened the council definitively. There were no Protestant delegates. The work of the council embraced dogmatic definition and correction of abuses, and it was so planned that discussion of doctrine and of reforms of practices could be carried on at the same time. The 10 years of delay bore good fruit, for the reformers arrived at the council intensively prepared in every question likely to be studied. The chief functions of the council were occasional solemn one-day sessions (25 in all, of which 10 dealt with formalities only) for the purpose of making the final decisions and declarations; the hard work of the council was done at informal, sometimes private, meetings. The council met at first in three great committees, later as a whole.

As with every ecumenical council since antiquity, the presence of the pope or his legates was required, and at Trent they drew up the agenda. The sessions of the council fell into three periods: 1-10 (1545-47), under Paul III; 11-16 (1551-52), under Julius III; and 17-25 (1562-63), under Pius IV. The two great interruptions were chiefly occasioned, first, by an impasse over the place of meeting after most of the bishops had left Trent for fear of the plague (1547), and, second, by the lack of interest of Paul IV (1555-59). Furthermore, the swiftly changing events of German politics often made delays seem wise. The numbers attending the council varied; in the first group of sessions there were less than 200, in the second group somewhat less, and in the third considerably more.

The Work of the Council

The work of the council was confirmed by Pius IV (in the papal bull Benedictus Deus, 1564), and its most important prescription, the issuance of an explicit account of the beliefs of the church, was fulfilled by the publication (1566) of the Catechism of the Council of Trent, or Roman Catechism (which, in fact, was not catechetical but descriptive in form). The dogmatic definitions and the reform decrees of the first group of sessions treated the Scriptures (canon, text, interpretation, and function), original sin, justification, the sacraments in general, baptism, and confirmation; and also the regulation of education, preaching, and alms collecting and the duties and obligations of bishops and beneficiaries. The canons on justification (6th session), the product of seven months of discussion, are among the chief work of the council.

The second period of the council was notable for the work of the Jesuits, especially Diego Lainez. The subjects treated were the Eucharist, penance, extreme unction, episcopal jurisdiction and office, clerical discipline, and benefices. The third period was dominated by St. Charles Borromeo; its definitions and regulations covered communion in both kinds, the Mass, the sacraments of orders and matrimony, the veneration and invocation of the saints, the cult of relics and images, the list of forbidden books, the priesthood in all its phases, ecclesiastical foundations, education, marriage, religious orders, feasts and fasts, and the service books of the church.

Influence

The doctrinal canons of the Council of Trent cover most of the controverted points in Roman Catholic dogma, and the definitions are so clear and lucid that the language of the council is often quoted in definitions. The reform measures of the council were tremendously far-reaching and their enforcement was probably the most thoroughgoing reform in the history of the church. The Counter Reformation afterward was to a great extent occupied with carrying out the principles and requirements laid down at Trent. The modern Roman Catholic Church can be understood only in the light of the work of the Council of Trent.

Bibliography

The most complete history is found in Ludwig Pastor's history of the popes; there is an English translation of the dogmatic canons and decrees and of the Roman Catechism, which includes much from the conciliar canons. See also H. Jedin, History of the Council of Trent (2 vol., tr. 1957-61); study by J. A. Froude (1896, repr. 1969).

(1545–63) 19th ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic church, which made sweeping reforms and laid down dogma clarifying nearly all doctrines contested by the Protestants. Convened by Pope Paul III at Trento in northern Italy, it served to revitalize Roman Catholicism in many parts of Europe. In its first period (1545–47) it accepted the Nicene Creed as the basis of Catholic faith, fixed the canon of the Old and New Testaments, set the number of sacraments at seven, and defined the nature and consequences of original sin; it also ruled against Martin Luther's doctrine of justification by faith. In its second period (1551–52) it confirmed the doctrine of transubstantiation and issued decrees on episcopal jurisdiction and clerical discipline. In the final period (1562–63) it defined the mass as a true sacrifice and issued statements on several other doctrinal issues. By the end of the 16th century, many of the abuses that had motivated the Protestant Reformation had disappeared, and the church had reclaimed many of its European followers.

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Canal, southeastern Ontario, Canada. Linking Lake Huron with Lake Ontario, the canal extends from the southeastern shore of Georgian Bay up the Severn River to Lake Simcoe, connects several lakes of the Kawartha Lake region to Rice Lake, and passes down the Trent River to the Bay of Quinte and Lake Ontario. Its 242-mi (389-km) main course consists of 33 mi (53 km) of man-made channels and 42 locks. Construction began in 1833. The waterway once served a busy lumber trade; it is now a popular tourist attraction.

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(1861) Incident in the American Civil War involving freedom of the seas. On Nov. 8, 1861, the Union frigate San Jacinto stopped the neutral British steamer Trent to seize Confederate commissioners John Slidell and James Murray Mason, who were en route to England and France to seek support for the Confederacy. Protests in Britain denounced the action and called for war. On December 26, William Seward admitted the Union's error in not bringing the ship into a U.S. port for adjudication, and the two men were soon released.

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English Trent ancient Tridentum

City (pop., 2001 prelim.: 104,844), capital of Trentino–Alto Adige region, on the Adige River in northern Italy. Reportedly founded by the Raetians circa 4th century BC, it later became a Roman colony on the road to the Brenner Pass in the Alps. In the Christian era Trento came under the Ostrogoths, Lombards, and Franks. It was the site of the Council of Trent (1545–63). It came under the Napoleonic kingdom of Italy in the early 19th century and passed to Austria in 1814 and to Italy in 1918. An agricultural market centre, it also has some light industry.

Learn more about Trento with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(1545–63) 19th ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic church, which made sweeping reforms and laid down dogma clarifying nearly all doctrines contested by the Protestants. Convened by Pope Paul III at Trento in northern Italy, it served to revitalize Roman Catholicism in many parts of Europe. In its first period (1545–47) it accepted the Nicene Creed as the basis of Catholic faith, fixed the canon of the Old and New Testaments, set the number of sacraments at seven, and defined the nature and consequences of original sin; it also ruled against Martin Luther's doctrine of justification by faith. In its second period (1551–52) it confirmed the doctrine of transubstantiation and issued decrees on episcopal jurisdiction and clerical discipline. In the final period (1562–63) it defined the mass as a true sacrifice and issued statements on several other doctrinal issues. By the end of the 16th century, many of the abuses that had motivated the Protestant Reformation had disappeared, and the church had reclaimed many of its European followers.

Learn more about Trent, Council of with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Trent is a town in Moody County, South Dakota, United States. The population was 254 at the 2000 census.

Geography

Trent is located at (43.906818, -96.654698), along the Big Sioux River.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 1.0 square miles (2.6 km²), all of it land.

Trent has been assigned the ZIP code 57065 and the FIPS place code 63940.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 254 people, 106 households, and 64 families residing in the town. The population density was 251.9 people per square mile (97.1/km²). There were 111 housing units at an average density of 110.1/sq mi (42.4/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 98.03% White, .75% African American, 0.39% Native American, and 1.57% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.39% of the population.

There were 106 households out of which 27.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.9% were married couples living together, 5.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 38.7% were non-families. 31.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.23 and the average family size was 2.83.

In the town the population was spread out with 21.7% under the age of 18, 7.1% from 18 to 24, 30.7% from 25 to 44, 23.2% from 45 to 64, and 17.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 111.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.0 males.

The median income for a household in the town was $36,161, and the median income for a family was $39,318. Males had a median income of $27,222 versus $23,542 for females. The per capita income for the town was $16,855. About 6.1% of families and 17.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.8% of those under the age of eighteen and 51.0% of those sixty five or over.

References

External links

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