The treeshrews (or tree shrews) are small mammals native to the tropical forests of Southeast Asia. They make up the families Tupaiidae and Ptilocercidae and the entire order Scandentia. There are 20 species in 5 genera. Treeshrews have a higher brain to body mass ratio than humans, though this is not uncommon for animals weighing less than a kilogram.
Although called treeshrews, they are not true shrews (although they were previously classified in the Insectivora), and not all species are necessarily arboreal. Among other things, they eat Rafflesia fruit. They have no clear fossil record.
Female treeshrews give birth to up to three young after a gestation period of 45-50 days, in nests lined with dry leaves inside tree hollows. The young are born blind and hairless, but are able to leave the nest after about a month. During this period, the mother provides relatively little maternal care, visiting her young only for a few minutes every other day to suckle them. Treeshrews reach sexual maturity after around four months, and breed for much of the year, with no clear breeding season in most species.
The name Tupaia is derived from tupai the Malay word for squirrel and was provided by Sir Stamford Raffles.
Treeshrews were moved from Insectivora to the Primates order, because of certain internal similarities to the latter (for example, similarities in the brain anatomy, highlighted by Sir Wilfred Le Gros Clark), and classified as a primitive prosimian. However, recent molecular phylogenetic studies have strongly suggested that treeshrews should be given the same rank (order) as the primates and, with the primates and the flying lemurs, belong to the clade Euarchonta. According to this classification, the Euarchonta are sister to the Glires (lagomorphs and rodents), and the two groups are combined into the clade Euarchontoglires. Other arrangements of these orders have been proposed.
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