Although treaty stipulations prohibited settlement of Creek lands, squatters moving into the territory were common and caused significant friction with tribe members. Tensions eventually resulted in a party of Creek warriors attacking and burning the town of Roanoke, Georgia. In response, federal officials met with Creek leaders in the Creek village of Cusseta (Kasihta) on the Chattahoochee River in Georgia. (Cusseta was sited on the current location of Lawson Army Airfield in Fort Benning.) The Creeks were compelled to agree to federal terms as outlined in the Treaty of Cusseta. The treaty was later signed in Washington, D.C..
The Treaty of Cusseta required that the Creek nation relinquish all claims to land east of the Mississippi River, including the territory in Alabama. In return, individual Creeks were to be granted land claims in the former Creek territory. Each of the ninety Creek chiefs was to receive one section (1 mi², 2.6 km²) of land and each Creek family was to receive one half-section (0.5 mi², 1.3 km²) of land of their choosing. Despite the grant of land, the treaty made clear the desire of the United States to remove as many Creeks as possible to the west in the least amount of time, and the United States agreed to pay expenses for Creek emigrants for the first year after being deported. The treaty also called for the United States to make payments to the Creek nation of approximately $350,000 and provide 20 square miles (51 km²) of land to be sold to support Creek orphans.
Once the treaty went into effect, many of the new Creek landowners, not being aware of the value of land, were quickly taken advantage of by settlers who often purchased the treaty-promised land for a pittance. Those Creeks who managed to keep legal title to their lands were soon overwhelmed by squatters, who state and federal officials generally refused to evict. When individual Creeks attempted to enforce their property rights against squatters themselves, they were often retaliated against by the local militia. By 1835, the situation became intractable and open conflict broke out once again between Creeks and settlers. The United States government responded by deporting most of the remaining Creeks to the Indian Territory.