Roads are mostly unsurfaced and are likely to be impassable during the wet season, especially in the southern half of the country. In the north, roads are merely tracks across the desert and land mines continue to present a danger. Draft animals (horses, donkeys and camels) remain important in much of the country.
Fuel supplies can be erratic, even in the south-west of the country, and are expensive. Elsewhere they are practically non-existent.
Approximately 500 km. Some, but not all of the roads in N'Djamena are paved. The country has one paved road outside of N'Djamena, which runs from Massakory in the north, through N'Djamena and then south, through the cities of Guelendeng, Bongor, Kelo and Moundou, with a short spur leading in the direction of Kousseri, Cameroon, near N'Djamena. Expansion of the road towards Cameroon via Pala and Lere is reportedly in the preparatory stages.
unpaved: 33,133 km (1999 est.)
Chad's main routes to the sea are:-
In colonial times, the main access was by road to Bangui, in the Central African Republic, then by river boat to Brazzaville, and onwards by rail from Brazzaville to Pointe Noire, on Congo's Atlantic coast. This route is now little used.
Links with Niger, north of Lake Chad, are practically nonexistent; it is easier to reach Niger via Cameroon and Nigeria.
List of airports with paved runways: