See his letters (ed. by B. Hobson, 1920); biography by M. Moriarty and C. Sweeney (1989).
Musical work for orchestra inspired by an extramusical story, idea, or “program,” to which the h1 typically refers or alludes. It evolved from the concert overture, an overture not attached to an opera or play yet suggestive of a literary or natural sequence of events. Franz Liszt, who coined the term, wrote 13 such works. Famous symphonic poems include
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A mixture of three pure tones (top) yields a complex resultant tone (bottom), such as might be elipsis
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In linguistics, a variation in the pitch of the voice while speaking. The term is usually applied to languages (called tone languages) in which pitch differentiates words with an identical sequences of consonants and vowels. For example, man in Mandarin Chinese may mean either “deceive” or “slow,” depending on its pitch. In tone languages, what matters is not absolute pitch but the pitch of one word relative to another or how pitch changes within a word.
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(born Jan. 20, 1763, Dublin, Ire.—died Nov. 19, 1798, Dublin) Irish republican and rebel. In 1791 he cofounded the Society of United Irishmen to work for parliamentary reform. He organized a Catholic convention of elected delegates that forced Parliament to pass the Catholic Relief Act in 1793. In 1796, seeking to overthrow English rule in Ireland, he convinced France to send an invasion force of 43 ships and 14,000 men, but the ships were dispersed by a storm. Tone again brought an Irish invasion plan to Paris in October 1797, but the principal French military leader, Napoleon Bonaparte, took little interest. In 1798, with only 3,000 men, he again attempted an invasion; captured and sentenced to hang, he committed suicide.
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