Timeline of agriculture and food technology
Timeline of agriculture and food technology
- 12,000 BC - Neolithic Revolution, the first agricultural revolution, begins in the ancient Near East
- 12,000 BC - Natufians in the Levant begin harvesting wild grasses.
- 9800 BC - Earliest evidence for domesticated wheat at PPNA sites in the Levant.
- 8500 BC - PPNB sites across the Fertile Crescent growing domestic wheat, barley, chickpeas, peas, beans, flax and bitter vetch. Sheep and goat domesticated.
- 7000 BC - agriculture had reached southern Europe with evidence of emmer and einkorn wheat, barley, sheep, goats, and pigs suggest that a food producing economy is adopted in Greece and the Aegean. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ht/02/eus/ht02eus.htm
- 7000 BC - Cultivation of wheat, sesame, barley, and eggplant in Mehrgarh (India/Pakistan).
- 7000 BC - Domestication of cattle and chicken in Mehrgarh, Indian subcontinent.
- 6800 BC - Rice domesticated in southeast Asia.
- 6500 BC - Evidence of cattle domestication in Turkey. Some sources say this happened earlier in other parts of the world
- 6000 BC Archaeological evidence from various sites on the Iberian peninsula suggest the domestication of plants and animals. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ht/02/eus/ht02eus.htm
- 6000 BC - Granary built in Mehrgarh for storage of excess food.
- 5500 BC Céide Fields in Ireland are the oldest known field systems in the world, this landscape consists of extensive tracts of land enclosed by stone walls. http://www.museumsofmayo.com/ceide.htm
- 5000 BC - Domestication of the horse in Ukraine
- 4000 BC - In Mehrgarh, the domestication of numerous crops, including peas, sesame seeds, dates, and cotton, as well as a wide range of domestic animals, including the Domestic Asian Water Buffalo, an animal that remains essential to intensive agricultural production throughout Asia today.
- 4000 BC - Egyptians discover how to make bread using yeast
- 4000 BC - Evidence for rice domestication in the Korat plateau area of northwestern Thailand
- 4000 BC - First use of light wooden ploughs in Mesopotamia
- 3500 BC - Irrigation was being used in Mesopotamia
- 3500 BC - First agriculture in the Americas, around Central Amazonia or Ecuador
- 3000 BC - Turmeric, cardamom, pepper and mustard are harvested in the Indus Valley Civilization (India/Pakistan).
- 3000 BC - Fermentation of dough, grain, and fruit juices is in practice.
- 3000 BC - Sugar produced in India
- 2600 BC - Large scale commercial timbering of cedars in Phoenicia (Lebanon) for export to Egypt and Sumeria. Similar commercial timbering in South India.
- 1700 BC - Wind powered machine developed by Babylonians
- 1300 BC - Creation of canal linking the Nile delta to the Red Sea
- 691 BC - First aqueduct (approx. 50 miles long) constructed to bring water to Nineveh.
- 530 BC - First Greek aqueduct (underground) http://www.bookrags.com/research/aqueduct-woi/
- 500 BC - The moldboard iron plough is invented in China
- 500 BC - Row cultivation of crops using intensive hoeing to weed and conserve moisture practised in China
- 300 BC - Efficient trace harness for plowing invented in China
- 200 BC - Efficient collar harness for plowing invented in China
- 100 BC - Rotary winnowing fan invented in China
- 100 BC - The multi-tube seed drill is invented in China
- AD 200 - The fishing reel invented in China
- 600 - The distillation of alcohol in China
- 607 - The Chinese begin constructing a massive canal system to connect the Yellow and Yangtze rivers
Arab Agricultural Revolution
- 640 - Arab Agricultural Revolution begins in the rapidly-expanding Arab Empire
- 644 - Muslim inventors develop a windmill, used to pump water for irrigation; this is a more advanced wind powered machine than that developed by the Babylonians
- 794 - Paper mill invented in Baghdad, Iraq
- 800 - Arabic chemists produce distilled water and purified water
- 800 - Pure alcohol (ethanol) as a pure compound is distilled by Arabic chemists such as Geber and Alkindus
- 850 - Use of coffee is known in Arabia
- 900 - Water turbine invented in the Arab Empire
- 900 - First wind powered gristmills built in present-day Afghanistan, Pakistan and Iran
- 900 - Geared gristmills with trip hammers developed in the Arab Empire
- 900 - First sugar refineries, driven by both water mills and windmills, invented in present-day Afghanistan, Pakistan and Iran
- 1000 - Sherbet, the first juiced and carbonated soft drink, is developed by Arabic chemists.
- 1000 - Cash cropping and the modern crop rotation system where land was cropped four or more times in a two-year period is introduced in the Arab Empire
- 1000 - The Arab Empire introduced agricultural innovations such as new forms of land tenure, improvements in irrigation, a variety of sophisticated irrigation methods, the introduction of fertilizers and widespread artificial irrigation systems, the development of gravity-flow irrigation systems from rivers and springs, the use of noria and chain pumps for irrigation purposes, the establishment of the sugar cane industry in the Mediterranean, and experimentation in sugar cultivation
- 1000 - Earliest factory milling installations built in Baghdad, Iraq
- 1000 - Milling dam (Pul-i-Bulaiti), used to provide additional power for milling, built at Karun, Iran
- 1050 - Flywheel-driven saqiya chain pump and noria developed by Ibn Bassal (fl. 1038-1075) of Al-Andalus
- 1100 - Bridge mill (water mill built as part of the superstructure of a bridge) developed in Cordoba, Al-Andalus
- 1100 - Spiral scoop-wheel, a device which raises large quantities of water to ground level with a high degree of efficiency, invented in Baghdad, Iraq
- 1100 - Finery forge invented in Al-Andalus
- 1100 - First European factory milling installations built in Al-Andalus
- 1206 - Al-Jazari invents the crankshaft and connecting rod, and employs them in a crank-connecting rod mechanism central to much of the machinery in the modern world; he employs it in a piston pump which, for the first time, demonstrates the use of a suction pipe, the first application of the double-acting principle, and the first conversion of rotary to reciprocating motion
- 1250 - Crank-driven screw and screwpump developed in the Arab world using Al-Jazari's crankshaft
- 1559 - Taqi al-Din invents a six-cylinder 'Monobloc' pump, a hydropowered water-raising machine incorporating valves, suction and delivery pipes, piston rods with lead weights, trip levers with pin joints, and cams on the axle of a water-driven scoop-wheel
British Agricultural Revolution