The Suma and the Jumano were people in western Sonora. The Suma was the western division and the Jumano, the eastern division. They ate fish and pigs.

These people were bison hunters and traders.

Juan Sabeata was chief of the Jumano (and also the Cibola) from approximately 1683-1692.


The Suma are also known variously as Zuma or Yuma. The Jumano were also known as Jumana, Xumana, Humano, Zumana, or Chouman.

The term Jumano has also been used to refer to other groups, such as the Wichita, the Tompiro pueblos in eastern New Mexico, and a rancheria in Flagstaff, Arizona (probably the Havasupai). The associations between these different peoples probably lies in their common practice of tattooing or painting their bodies. The first recording of the term was in 1582 by Diego Perez de Luxan. Contact with the Spaniards was recorded on the walls of a rock shelter called Jumano rock shelter near Bottomless Lakes State Park (Roswell, NM), which is part of the Garnsey kill site. An ancient spring, land bridge, and an American Bison bone yard from the Jumano culture are also part of the site.

Neighboring peoples

In historic times, the Suma-Jumano were bordered in the north by the Manso and Mescalero; in the west by the Jocome, Jano, and Ópata; in the south by the Lower Pima and Concho; in the east by the Comanche and Lipan.


The Suma and Jumano were often assumed to have spoken an Uto-Aztecan language, but this assumption is based on only four words with recorded meanings and a few other personal names (without recorded meanings). Thus, their linguistic affiliation cannot be determined with certainty. Other researchers have suggested links with Athabascan and Caddoan.


The Jumanos were divided into two different groups: The Puebloan Jumanos, and the Plains Jumanos.


The Pueblos were a group of Jumanos who were given this name because they built houses called Pueblos out of adobe bricks. The houses were brightly painted on the inside and mostly brown on the outside.

Plains Jumanos

Unlike the Pueblos, the Plains Jumanos lived in teepees and they were nomadic. They would live in one place and farm there until the growing season was over. When they moved, they became hunter gatherers and they usually hunted buffalo.


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