, sometimes called personal validation effect
, is a cognitive bias
by which a person will consider a statement or another piece of information to be correct if it has any personal meaning or significance to them. In other words, a person whose opinion is affected by subjective validation will perceive two unrelated events (e.g. coincidences
) to be related because their personal belief demands them to be related. Closely related to the Forer effect
, subjective validation is an important element in cold reading
. It is considered to be the main reason behind most reports of paranormal phenomena.