Stuttgart was chartered in the 13th cent. In 1320 it became a residence of the counts (later dukes, from 1806 kings) of Württemberg, who made it their capital at the end of the 15th cent. The city expanded rapidly in the 19th and 20th cent. as its industrial plant grew; it became an important center of the German automotive industry. After World War I it became famous for the innovative architecture of its numerous modern buildings. Noteworthy are the housing developments in the outer residential districts, where contemporary theories of home building were applied on a large scale. The center of the city, which formed its oldest part, was almost totally destroyed in World War II.
After 1945 many old buildings were restored, and striking modern structures (such as the city hall and the concert hall) were erected. Other points of interest in the city include the Stiftskirche, a 12th-century church (redone in the 15th cent.); the rococo Solitude Palace (1763-67); the New Palace (1746-1807; now an administrative center); Rosenstein Palace (1824-29; now housing a museum of natural history); and the main railroad station (1914-27). The city has several other museums (including Mercedes-Benz and Porsche museums), a university, and an academy of fine arts. Friedrich von Schiller studied medicine in Stuttgart from 1773 to 1780.
City (pop., 2002 est.: city, 587,152; urban agglom., 2,529,675), southwestern Germany. Located on the Neckar River, Stuttgart was originally a 10th-century stud farm. It became a town in the 13th century and passed to the counts of Württemberg, serving as their capital until the 19th century. The Thirty Years' War, French invasions in the 17th century, and heavy bombing during World War II took a toll on the city. Many historic buildings have been rebuilt, including the 13th-century castle. It is a cultural, transportation, industrial, and publishing centre. The University of Stuttgart was founded in 1829.
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Stuttgart (ˈʃtʊtgaɐ̯t) is the capital of the state of Baden-Württemberg in southern Germany. The sixth-largest city in Germany, Stuttgart has a population of 590,429 (February 2008) while the metropolitan area referred to as Stuttgart Region has a population of 2.7 million (2007).
The city lies at the centre of a heavily populated area, circled by a ring of smaller towns. The inner urban area has a population of 2.63 million making 'greater Stuttgart' the third biggest city region in Germany after the Ruhr Area and Berlin.
Stuttgart is spread across a variety of hills, valleys and parks - unusual for German cities and often a cause of surprise to visitors who primarily associate the city with its industrial reputation as the "Cradle of the automobile".
Stuttgart has the status of Stadtkreis, a type of self-administrating urban county. It is also the seat of the regional parliament, local council and the Protestant State Church of Württemberg as well as one of the two co-seats of the bishop of the Roman Catholic diocese of Rottenburg-Stuttgart.
The city's motto is "Stuttgart is more" (to tourists; to business it describes itself as "Standort Zukunft", translated by town hall marketing as "Where business meets the future"). In 2007 the Bürgermeister marketed Stuttgart to foreign investors as "The creative power of Germany". Under current plans to improve transport links to the international infrastructure (as part of the Stuttgart 21 project), in March 2008 the city unveiled a new logo and slogan, describing itself as "Das neue Herz Europas" ("The new heart of Europe").
Stuttgart covers an area of . The elevation ranges from 207 metres above sea level by the Neckar river to 549 metres on Bernhartshöhe hill. As a result there are more than 400 flights of stairs around the city (called "Stäffele" in local dialect), equivalent to approximately 20 kilometres of steps. Many originate from the time when vineyards lined the entire valley. Even today there are vineyards less than 500 metres from the Main Station.
The outer districts are:
Stuttgart's metropolitan area (the political entity "Stuttgart Region") encompasses the nearby towns of Ludwigsburg with its enormous baroque palace, Böblingen, Esslingen, Waiblingen, Göppingen and their respective districts.
Winters last from December to March. The coldest month is January with an average temperature of . Snow cover tends to last no longer than a few days although it has been known to last a couple of weeks as recently as 2004. The summers are warm with an average temperature of in the hottest months of July and August. The summers last from May until September.
The first known settlement of Stuttgart was around the end of the 1st century A.D. with the establishment of a Roman fort in the modern district of Cannstatt on the banks of the river Neckar. The Romans withdrew in around 260 A.D. following the invasion of the Alamanni from the north. Although nothing is known about Cannstatt during the period of Barbarian Invasion it is believed that the area remained inhabited as it is mentioned in Abbey of St. Gall archives dating back to 700 A.D.
Stuttgart itself was probably founded around 950 A.D. shortly before the Battle of Lechfeld by Duke Liudolf of Swabia, one of the sons of Holy Roman Emperor Otto I the Great. The town was used for breeding cavalry horses in fertile meadows at the very centre of today's city, although recent archaeological excavations indicate that this area was already home to Merovingian farmers.
A gift registry from Hirsau Abbey dated around 1160 mentioned "Hugo de Stuokarten", confirmation of the existence of the Stuttgart of today.
In around 1300 Stuttgart became the residence of the Counts of Württemberg who expanded the growing settlement into the capital of their territory ('Territorialstaat'). Stuttgart was elevated to the status of city in 1321 when it became the official royal residence. The territory around Stuttgart was known as the County of Württemberg before the counts were elevated to dukes by the Holy Roman Emperor in 1495 when Stuttgart became the Duchy capital and Ducal residence.
The name Württemberg originates from a steep hill in Stuttgart, formerly known as Wirtemberg.
In the 18th century, Stuttgart temporarily surrendered its residence status after Eberhard Ludwig founded Ludwigsburg to the north of the city. In 1775, Karl Eugen requested a return to Stuttgart, ordering the construction of the New Castle.
In 1803, Stuttgart was proclaimed capital of Württemberg Kurfürstentum (ruled by a Prince-elector) until Napoleon Bonaparte's breakup of the Holy Roman Empire in 1805 when Stuttgart became capital of the Kingdom of Württemberg. The royal residence was expanded under Frederick I of Württemberg although many of Stuttgart's most important buildings including the Wilhelm Palace, Katharina Hospital, the State Gallery, the Villa Berg and the Königsbau were built under the reign of King Wilhelm I.
Stuttgart's development as a city was impeded in the 19th century by its location. It was not until the opening of the Main Station in 1846 that the city underwent an economic revival. The population at the time was around 50,.
During the revolution of 1848/1849, a democratic pan-German national parliament (Frankfurt Parliament) was formed in Frankfurt to overcome the division of Germany. After long discussions, the parliament decided to offer the title of the German emperor to King Frederick William IV of Prussia. As the democratic movement became weaker, the German princes regained control of their independent states. Finally, the Prussian king declined the revolutionaries' offer. The members of parliament were driven out of Frankfurt and the most radical members (who wanted to establish a republic) fled to Stuttgart. A short while later, this rump parliament was dissolved by the Württemberg military.
Under Nazi Germany, Stuttgart began deportation of Jewish inhabitants in 1939. Around sixty percent of the German Jewish population had fled by the time restrictions on their movement were imposed on 1 October 1941 at which point Jews living in Württemberg were forced to live in "Jewish apartments" before being "concentrated" on the former Trade Fair grounds in Killesberg. On 1 December 1941 the first deportation trains were organised to Riga. Only 180 Jews from Württemberg held in concentration camps survived.
During World War II, the centre of Stuttgart was nearly completely destroyed in Allied air raids. Some of the most severe bombing took place in 1944 at the hands of Anglo-American bombers. The heaviest raid took place on 12 September 1944 when the Royal Air Force bombed the old town of Stuttgart dropping over 184,000 bombs including 75 blockbusters. More than 1000 people perished in the resulting firestorm. In total Stuttgart was subjected to 53 bombing raids, resulting in the destruction of 68% of all buildings and the death of 4477 people.
In 1945 the Allied Forces took control of Germany, spearheaded by the French army which occupied Stuttgart until the city fell into the American military occupation zone. An early concept of the Marshall Plan aimed at supporting reconstruction and economic/political recovery across Europe was presented during a speech given by US Secretary of State James F. Byrnes at the Stuttgart Opera House. His speech led directly to the unification of the British and American occupation zones, resulting in the 'bi-zone' (later the 'tri-zone' including the French). When the Federal Republic of Germany was founded on 23 May 1949, Stuttgart, like Frankfurt, was a serious contender to become the federal capital, but finally Bonn succeeded.
During the Cold War, Stuttgart became home to the joint command centre of all United States military forces in Europe, Africa and the Atlantic (US European Command, EUCOM). EUCOM is still headquartered there today. U.S. Army bases in and around Stuttgart include or included the following: Patch Barracks (HQ EUCOM), Robinson Barracks, Panzer Kaserne, Kelley Barracks.
In the late 1970s, the district of Stammheim was centre stage of one of the most controversial periods of German post-war history during the trial of Red Army Faction members at Stammheim high-security court. After the trial, Ulrike Meinhof, Andreas Baader, Gudrun Ensslin and Jan-Carl Raspe committed suicide in Stammheim. Several attempts were made to free the terrorists by force or blackmail during the 'German Autumn' of 1977, culminating in the abduction and murder of the German industrialist and President of the German Employers' Association Hanns Martin Schleyer as well as the hijacking of Lufthansa flight LH181.
In 1978 Stuttgart's suburban railway came into operation.
Stuttgart's coat of arms shows a black horse on its hind legs on a yellow background. It was first used in its current format in 1938 before when various designs and colours had been used, often with two horses. The canting seal pictured here reflects the origin of the name "Stuttgart". The name in Old High German was "stuotgarten", with "stuot" cognate with the Old English term "stod" (Modern English: "stud", relating to the breeding of horses). The Old High German term "garten" referred to the compound on the site of the original settlement.
Although the city centre was heavily damaged during World War II, many historic buildings have been reconstructed and the city boasts some fine pieces of modern post-war architecture. Buildings and squares of note in the inner city include:
A number of significant castles stand in Stuttgart's suburbs and beyond as reminders of the city's royal past. These include:
Other landmarks in and around Stuttgart include (''see also museums below):
At the centre of Stuttgart lies a series of gardens referred to by locals as the Green U and popular with families and cyclists. It starts with the old Schlossgarten, castle gardens first mentioned in records in 1350. The modern park stretches down to the river Neckar and is divided into the upper garden (bordering the Old Castle, the Main Station, the State Theater and the State Parliament building), and the middle and lower gardens - a total of 61 hectares. The park also houses Stuttgart planetarium.
At the far end of Schlossgarten lies the second Green U park, the larger Rosensteinpark which borders Stuttgart's Wilhelma zoo and botanical gardens. Planted by King William I of Württemberg, it contains many old trees and open areas and counts as the largest English-style garden in southern Germany. In the grounds of the park stands the former Rosenstein castle, now the Rosenstein museum.
Beyond bridges over an adjacent main road lies the final Green U park, Killesbergpark or 'Höhenpark' which is a former quarry that was converted for the Third Reich garden show of 1939 (and was used as a collection point for Jews awaiting transportation to concentration camps). The park has been used to stage many gardening shows since the 1950s, including the Bundesgartenschau and 1993 International Gardening Show, and runs miniatures trains all around the park in the summer months for children and adults. The viewing tower (Killesbergturm) offers unique views across to the north east of Stuttgart.
On the northern edge of the Rosensteinpark is the famous "Wilhelma", Germany's only combined zoological and botanical garden. The whole compound, with its ornate pavilions, greenhouses, walls and gardens was built around 1850 as a summer palace in moorish style for King Wilhelm I of Württemberg. It currently houses around 8000 animals and some 5000 plant species and contains the biggest magnolia grove in Europe.
Other parks in Stuttgart include the gardens at Castle Hohenheim (which date back to 1776 and are still used to catalogue and research plant species), Uhlandshöhe hill (between the city centre, Bad Cannstatt and Frauenkopf, and home to Stuttgart observatory), the Weißenburgpark (a five hectare park in the Bopser area of Stuttgart South which dates back to 1834 and is now home to a 'tea house' and the 'marble room' and offers a relaxing view across the city centre), the Birkenkopf (at 511 metres the highest point in central Stuttgart, where many ruins were laid to commemorate the Second World War), the Eichenhain park in Sillenbuch (declared a nature reserve in 1958 and home to 200 oak trees, many 300-400 years old).
There are number of natural and artificial lakes and ponds in Stuttgart. The largest is the Max-Eyth-See which was created in 1935 by reclaiming a former quarry and is now an official nature reserve. It is surrounded by an expansive open area overlooked by vineyards on the banks of the river Neckar near Mühlhausen).
There are expansive areas of woodland to the west and south west of Stuttgart which are popular with walkers, families, cyclists and ramblers. The most frequented lakes form a 3km trio made up of the Bärensee, Neuer See and Pfaffensee. The lakes are also used for local water supplies.
In the Feuersee area in the west of Stuttgart lies one of two "Feuersee"s (literally fire lakes), striking for its views of the church across the lake, surrounded by nearby houses and offices. The other Feuersee can be found in Vaihingen.
Cemeteries in Stuttgart include:
Stuttgart is known for its strong cultural heritage, in particular its State Theatre (Staatstheater) and State Gallery (Staatsgallerie). The Staatstheater is home to the State opera and three smaller theatres and it regularly stages opera, ballet and theatre productions as well as concerts. The Staatstheater was named Germany/Austria/Switzerland "Theatre of the year" in 2006; Stuttgart Opera has won the "Opera of the year" award six times. Stuttgart Ballet is connected to names like John Cranko and Marcia Haydée.
The city also offers two broadway-style musical theatres, the Apollo and the Palladium Theater (each approx. 1800 seats). Ludwigsburg Palace in the nearby town of Ludwigsburg is also used throughout the year as a venue for concerts and cultural events.
The Schleyerhalle sports arena is regularly used to stage rock and pop concerts with major international stars on European tour.
Stuttgart's Swabian cuisine, beer and wine have been produced in the area since the 1600s and are now famous throughout Germany and beyond. For example, Gaisburger Marsch is a stew that was invented in Stuttgart's Gaisburg area of Stuttgart South.
In 1993 Stuttgart hosted the International Garden Show in the suburb of Killesberg. In 2006 it was also one of the host cities of the Football World Cup. The city is set to host the 2008 World Individual Debating and Public Speaking Championships.
Regular events that take place in Stuttgart:
Stuttgart is home to five of the eleven state museums in Baden-Württemberg. The foremost of these is the old State Gallery (opened in 1843, extended in 1984) which holds art dating from the 14th to 19th century including works by Rubens, Rembrandt, Monet, Renoir, Cézanne and Beuys. Next door to the Old State Gallery is the New State Gallery (1980) with its controversial modern architecture. Among others, this gallery houses works from Max Beckmann, Dalí, Matisse, Miró, Picasso, Klee, Chagall and Kandinsky.
The Old Castle is also home to the State Museum of Württemberg which was founded in 1862 by William I of Württemberg. The museum traces the rich history of Württemberg with many artefacts from the its dukes, counts and kings, as well as earlier remants dating back to the stone age. On the Karlsplatz side of the Old Castle is a museum dedicated to the memory of Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg, former resident of Stuttgart who attempted to assassinate Adolf Hitler on 20 July 1944.
Other leading museums in Stuttgart include:
The population of Stuttgart declined steadily between 1960 (637,539) and 2000 (586,978). Then low levels of unemployment and attractive secondary education opportunities led to renewed population growth, fuelled especially by young adults from the former East Germany. For the first time in decades, in 2006 there were also more births in the city than deaths.
In 2000, 22.8% of the population did not hold German citizenship, in 2006 this had reduced to 21.7%. The largest groups of foreign nationals were Turks (22,025), Greeks (14,341), Italians (13,978), Croats (12,985), Serbs (11,547) followed by immigrants from Bosnia-Herzegovina, Portugal, Poland, Austria and France. 39% of foreign nationals come from the European Union.
At the end of the Second World War, French administrators appointed the independent politician Arnulf Klett as Burgomaster, a role he fulfilled without interruption until his death in 1974. Since this time Stuttgart has been governed by the CDU. The previous mayor was Manfred Rommel (son of perhaps the most famous German field marshal of World War II, Erwin Rommel).
| European |
| State |
| National German parliament|
| Regional |
| European |
| City Council|
| National German parliament|
|CDU||42.5 %||42.9 %||37.1 %||35.1 %||35.6 %||37.4 %||32.9 % (21)||32.7 %|
|SPD||24.5 %||27.6 %||36.3 %||35.7 %||24.4 %||21.2 %||22.8 % (14)||32.0 %|
|FDP||5.5 %||6.2 %||9.2 %||8.5 %||5.3 %||7.7 %||6.5 % (4)||12.8 %|
|Green Party||14.1 %||14.3 %||11.5 %||16.2 %||17.2 %||22.1 %||18.7 % (11)||15.0 %|
|Independent||5.6 %||-||-||-||8.5 %||-||9.7 % (6)||-|
|Republicans||3.6 %||3.6 %||4.7 %||1.0 %||4.0 %||3.3 %||3.9 % (2)||0.8 %|
|PDS||-||-||-||1.4 %||1.7 %||1.9 %||1.8 % (1)||4.4 %|
|SÖS||-||-||-||-||-||-||1.7 % (1)||-|
|Others||1.5 %||5.4 %||1.2%||2.1 %||3.4 %||6.5 %||2.0 %||2.3 %|
|Election turnout||59.1 %||46.6 %||65.5 %||81.0 %||54.0 %||51.9 %||48.7 %||79.1 %|
Stuttgart is home to Germany's ninth biggest exhibition centre, Stuttgart Trade Fair which lies on the city outskirts next to Stuttgart Airport. Hundreds of SMEs are still based in Stuttgart (the so-called "Mittelstand"), many still in family ownership with strong ties to the automotive, electronics, engineering and high-tech industry.
The motorbike and four-wheel automobile were invented in Stuttgart (by Gottlieb Daimler and Karl Benz; industrialised in 1887 by Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach at the Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft). As a result it is considered by many to be the starting point of the worldwide automotive industry and is sometimes referred to as "The cradle of the automobile". Mercedes-Benz, Porsche and Maybach are all produced in Stuttgart and nearby towns. The very first prototypes of the VW Beetle were manufactured in Stuttgart based on a design by Ferdinand Porsche.