Definitions

Strikeout

Strikeout

[strahyk-out]

In baseball or softball, a strikeout or strike out (denoted by SO or K) occurs when a batter receives three strikes during his time at bat. Strikeouts are associated with dominance on the part of the pitcher, although it is recognized that the style of swing that generates home runs also leaves the batter somewhat susceptible to striking out.

Rules

A pitcher receives credit for (and a batter is charged with) a strikeout on any third strike, but a batter is out only if any of the following is true:

  1. the third strike is pitched and caught in flight by the catcher (including foul tips);
  2. on any third strike, if a baserunner is on first and there are fewer than two outs;
  3. the third strike is bunted foul and is not caught by a fielder

If the third strike is not caught and there are two outs, or fewer than two outs and no baserunner on first, the batter becomes a runner. Thus, it is possible for a batter to strike out, but still reach base safely if the catcher fails or is unable to catch the third strike cleanly and cannot tag out the batter or force him out at first base (in Japan this is called furinige(振り逃げ), i.e. swing and escape). As a result, pitchers have occasionally been able to record four strikeouts in one half-inning.

In scoring, a swinging strikeout is recorded as a K, or a K-S. A strikeout looking (where the batter does not swing at a pitch that the umpire then calls strike three) is sometimes scored with a backwards K.

The use of "K" for a strikeout was invented by Henry Chadwick, a newspaper journalist who is widely credited as the originator of the box score and the baseball scorecard. Both the box score and scorecard persist largely unchanged to this day, as the game itself is largely unchanged except for the number of balls and strikes allowed to the pitcher and batter. The letter "S" was used to coin "sacrifice" so Chadwick decided to use "K", with "K" being the last letter in "struck." Chadwick also invented many other baseball scoring abbreviations, such as using numbers to designate player positions (progressing from the battery, pitcher [1] and catcher [2], through the infield, with the shortstop counted after the basemen, at number 6, to the right fielder [9]).

That Chadwick first established the convention of using the "K" abbreviation is well-founded, with reliable and authentic primary materials surviving (see citation above). Those unaware of Chadwick's contributions have speculated that "K" was derived from the 19th century pitcher Matt Kilroy's last name. If not for the evidence supporting Chadwick's earlier use of "K", this speculation would be reasonable: Kilroy did much to raise the prominence of the strikeout, setting an all-time record of 513 strikeouts in 1886, only two years after overhand pitching was permitted. Kilroy's record, however, is forever confined to its era: the pitcher's mound during his record-setting season was only from the batter; it was moved to its current distance of 60'6" in 1893. The modern record (1901-) is 383 strikeouts, held by Nolan Ryan, one better than Sandy Koufax's 382.

Although some people use "K" to record pitchers' strikeouts, "SO" is the official abbreviation used by Major League Baseball.

In addition, "K" is still commonly used by fans and enthusiasts for purposes other than official record-keeping. In one baseball ritual, fans at the ballpark who are seated in view of the batter (and the television cameras) attach a succession of small "K" signs to the nearest railing, one added for every strikeout notched by the home team's pitcher. As is traditional for those who keep a record of the game on paper, the "K" is placed backwards in cases where the batter strikes out looking. Virtually every televised display of a major league game in which a pitcher registers a high number of strikeouts (7 or 8) will include a shot of a fan's strikeout display, and if the pitcher continues to strike out batters, the display often will be shown following every strikeout. In the event that a known "strikeout pitcher" is on the mound, the strikeout display will be televised on from the beginning.

History

The strikeout is as old as baseball itself. Alexander Cartwright's Knickerbocker Rules, drawn up in 1845 and considered the foundation of the modern game, define the strikeout as follows:

Three balls being struck at and missed and the last one caught, is a hand-out; if not caught is considered fair, and the striker bound to run. (Rule #11)

This is essentially the same rule in use today, with the addition of the called strike (1858) and the provision that the batter is automatically out if there are fewer than two out and a runner on first. In 1880, the rules were changed to specify that a third strike had to be caught on the fly. In 1887, the number of strikes for an out was changed to four, but promptly changed back to three the next season. A foul bunt was classified as a strike in 1894, and a foul tip in 1895.

Jargon and slang

A swinging strikeout is often called a whiff and a batter who is struck out by a fastball is often said to have been blown away. A batter who strikes out on a swung third strike is said to have been fanned. When a batter takes a called third strike it is called a punchout, describing the plate umpire's punching motion on a called third strike, which resembles the motion most umpires use to call a baserunner out, but is usually more vigorous, perhaps reflecting an unspoken belief that looking at a third strike is somewhat more blameworthy than making any other out. On a called third strike, it is said that the batter was caught looking or that he looked at a strike. Typically, a called third strike can be somewhat more embarrassing for a batter, as it shows that he was either fooled by the pitcher, or even worse, had a moment of hesitation. Sports commentators have also been known to refer to it as browsing if the batter did not move his bat at all.

A pitcher is said to strike out the side when he retires all three batters in a half inning by striking them out. A batter that takes the third strike looking, especially on a breaking pitch, such as a slider or a curveball, that appears to be out of the strike zone but drops in before the batter can get the bat off his shoulders, can be said to have been frozen.

In slang, when a batter strikes out three times in a game, he is said to have completed a hat trick or a silver sombrero. If he strikes out four times, it is a Golden sombrero. He receives the Olympic Rings or a Texas Star for striking out five times and the horn for striking out six times in a game - a rare occurrence, which in the history of major league play has only been accomplished in extra innings games.

Some pitchers who specialize in strikeouts have acquired nicknames including the letter "K". Cincinnati Reds closer Francisco Cordero is known as "Koko", Dwight Gooden was known as "Doctor K". Francisco Rodriguez is known as "K-Rod. Roger Clemens has taken the "K" name to an extreme, naming his four sons Koby, Kory, Kacy, and Kody.

Four strikeouts in an inning

If a third strike is not caught by the catcher (and is not tipped), it is a strikeout, and the at-bat is over. However, with first base open or with two outs, the batter is not out until tagged out or forced out. On a wild pitch or passed ball the batter can often advance to first base safely. If a runner is at first base and there are less than two outs, the batter is automatically out, as with the infield fly rule. If there are two outs, another runner may be forced out as with any other ball in play. If the runner reaches first base safely, there is no out, but the pitcher is still credited with a strikeout.

It is thus possible for a pitcher to throw four (or more) strikeouts in an inning. The first major leaguer to be credited with the feat was Jon Andre of the New York Giants on October 4, 1888. Chuck Finley did it on May 12 and August 15, 1999 with the Anaheim Angels, and then for a third time on April 16, 2000 with the Cleveland Indians. Finley is the only player to pitch four strikeouts in an inning more than once.

The feat was once quite rare, occurring only five times before 1956, but it has become less rare in recent years, occurring six times during the 1999 season alone. This increase in frequency may be due somewhat to increased use of the split-finger fastball and forkball, both pitches that end up in the dirt at the plate when effective and often are difficult to handle for catchers. In addition, individual strikeouts are simply far more common, now generally occurring in about one out of eight plate appearances, rather than in about one out of six as in the 1950s, and the total number of innings pitched in a season has doubled as well, due to an expanded schedule and more than a dozen extra teams. The combined effects of the higher strikeout rate and expanded schedule would be expected to make the four-strikeout inning about seven times more frequent than it was fifty years ago.

With any runners advancing to leave first base open if there are less than two outs, the process can repeat, leading to a fifth strikeout (or more) in the inning. A fifth strikeout has not happened in a regulation game in the major leagues, but has occurred three times in the minor leagues, most recently by Garrett Bauer of the Rockford RiverHawks against the Windy City Thunderbolts on July 1 2008. In the major leagues, knuckleballer Joe Niekro also struck out five men in an inning during a spring exhibition game when Niekro was with the Houston Astros.

Strikeout Records

Pitchers

The top 16 Major League Baseball career strikeout leaders (active players in bold):

  • (since 1901)

through September 30, 2008

  1. Nolan Ryan - 5,714
  2. Randy Johnson - 4,789
  3. Roger Clemens - 4,672
  4. Steve Carlton - 4,136
  5. Bert Blyleven - 3,701
  6. Tom Seaver - 3,640
  7. Don Sutton - 3,574
  8. Gaylord Perry - 3,534
  9. Walter Johnson - 3,509
  10. Greg Maddux - 3,371
  11. Phil Niekro - 3,342
  12. Ferguson Jenkins - 3,192
  13. Bob Gibson - 3,117
  14. Pedro Martínez - 3,117
  15. Curt Schilling - 3,116
  16. John Smoltz - 3,011

The top five Major League Baseball career strikeout-per-nine innings leaders (since 1900): (through 2008 season, minimum 2000 IP)

  1. Randy Johnson - 10.67
  2. Pedro Martínez - 10.08
  3. Nolan Ryan - 9.55
  4. Sandy Koufax - 9.28
  5. Sam McDowell - 8.86

The top 5 Major League Baseball single season strikeout-per-nine innings leaders (since 1900): (through 2008 season, minimum 1.0 IP per team game)

  1. Randy Johnson, 2001 - 13.41
  2. Pedro Martínez, 1999 - 13.20
  3. Kerry Wood, 1998 - 12.58
  4. Randy Johnson, 2000 - 12.56
  5. Randy Johnson, 1995 - 12.35

The Top 10 Major League Baseball single season strikeout totals (since 1900)

Pitcher Strikeouts Season Team League Overall Rank
Nolan Ryan 383 1973 California Angels AL 8
Sandy Koufax 382 1965 Los Angeles Dodgers NL 9
Randy Johnson 372 2001 Arizona Diamondbacks NL 11
Nolan Ryan 367 1974 California Angels AL 14
Randy Johnson 364 1999 Arizona Diamondbacks NL 15
Rube Waddell 349 1904 Philadelphia Athletics AL 18
Bob Feller 348 1946 Cleveland Indians AL 19
Randy Johnson 347 2000 Arizona Diamondbacks NL 20
Nolan Ryan 341 1977 California Angels AL 25
Randy Johnson 334 2002 Arizona Diamondbacks NL 30

Active pitchers in top 50 (as of September 30, 2008):

  2. Randy Johnson - 4,789
10. Greg Maddux - 3,371
13. Pedro Martínez - 3,117
15. Curt Schilling - 3,116
16. John Smoltz - 3,011
19. Mike Mussina - 2,813
24. Tom Glavine - 2,607
46. Jamie Moyer - 2,248

Batters

The top ten Major League Baseball career strikeout leaders (as of 2008 season):

  1. Reggie Jackson - 2,597
  2. Sammy Sosa - 2,306
  3. Jim Thome - 2,190
  4. Andrés Galarraga - 2,003
  5. José Canseco - 1,942
  6. Willie Stargell - 1,936
  7. Mike Schmidt - 1,883
  8. Fred McGriff - 1,882
  9. Tony Perez - 1,867
  10. Dave Kingman - 1,816

Active batters in the top 50 (as of September 30, 2008):

  3. Jim Thome - 2,190
15. Carlos Delgado - 1,725
22. Ken Griffey, Jr. - 1,682
23. Jim Edmonds - 1,669
24. Manny Ramírez - 1,667
25. Mike Cameron - 1,642
26. Alex Rodriguez - 1,641
41. Jeff Kent - 1,522
49. Andruw Jones - 1,470

Single season strikeout records (batters):

Rank Player Strikeouts Year
   1 Mark Reynolds 204 2008
   2 Ryan Howard 199 2007
   Ryan Howard 199 2008
   4 Jack Cust 197 2008
   5 Adam Dunn 195 2004
   6 Adam Dunn 194 2006
   7 Bobby Bonds 189 1970
   8 José Hernández 188 2002
   9 Bobby Bonds 187 1969
   Preston Wilson 187 2000

References

  • Schlossberg, Dan (2007). Baseball Gold: Mining Nuggets from Our National Pastime. Chicago, Illinois: Triumph Books.

See also related lists

External links

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