Serge Alexandre Stavisky (1888–1934), who became known as le beau Sacha - "Handsome Sasha", was a Russian Jew born in modern-day Ukraine whose parents had moved to France. He tried professions like a cafe singer, nightclub manager, worked in soup factory and operated a gambling den. In the 1930s he managed municipal pawnshops in Bayonne but also moved in financial circles. He sold lots of worthless bonds and financed his "hockshop" on the surety of what he called the emeralds of the late Empress of Germany, which later turned out to be glass.
Stavisky maintained his façade with his connections to various people in important positions. If some newspaper tried to investigate his affairs, he bought them off, sometimes with large advertisement contracts, sometimes by buying the paper.
In 1927, Stavisky was put on trial for fraud for the first time. However, the trial was postponed again and again and he was granted bail 19 times. He probably continued his scams during this time. One judge who claimed to hold secret documents was later found decapitated.
Faced with exposure in December 1933, Stavisky fled. On 8 January 1934, the police found him in a Chamonix chalet agonizing from a gun wound. Officially Stavisky committed suicide but there was a persistent speculation that police killed him. The latter is the theory followed in Flanner's New Yorker articles. Fourteen Parisian newspapers called it suicide and eight did not. The distance the bullet had traveled led Le Canard enchaîné to propose the tongue-in-cheek theory that he had "a long arm".
Chautemps was replaced by Édouard Daladier from the same Radical-Socialist Party. One of his first acts was to dismiss the prefect of the Paris police, Jean Chiappe, notorious for his right-wing sympathies and suspected of encouraging previous anti-government demonstrations. Next Daladier dismissed the director of the Comédie Française, who had been staging William Shakespeare's anti-democratic Coriolanus and replaced him with the head of the Sûreté-Générale, who was as reliably leftist as the Paris police chief had been of the right. He also appointed a new Interior Minister, Eugène Frot who announced that demonstrators would be shot.
The dismissal of the Prefect by the Paris police was the immediate cause of the 6 February 1934 crisis, which the historian Alfred Cobban characterises as a right-wing putsch. It would be more accurately characterized as a "putsch attempt", in the words of French historian Serge Bernstein. However, the left-wing at the time did fear an overt fascist conspiracy. Fomented by conservative, anti-Semitic, monarchist and fascist groups, including Action Française (AF's leader, the novelist Léon Daudet called the government "a gang of robbers and assassins"), the Croix-de-Feu and the Mouvement Franciste, the riots resulted in fourteen deaths over six hours on the night of 6–7 February 1934 at the hands of 800 police. The événement failed in its aim of overthrowing the Third Republic (1871–1940) but Daladier had to resign. His successor was conservative Gaston Doumergue who created a coalition cabinet. It was the first time during the Third Republic that a government had to resign before the pressure of the streets. They also led to the formation of anti-fascism leagues and to the agreement between the SFIO socialist party and the communist party, which in turn led to the 1936 Popular Front.
The scandal brought in a remarkable range of personalities from politics, high society and the literary-intellectual elite of Paris. Mistinguett was asked why she had been photographed with Stavisky at a nightclub; Georges Simenon reported on the unfolding affair and Stavisky's ex-bodyguard threatened him with physical violence; and Colette, referring to the inability of any of Stavisky's high-placed friends to remember him, described the dead con-artist as "a man with no face".
The trial of 20 people associated with Stavisky began in 1935. Printed charges were 1200 pages long. All of the accused, including Stavisky's widow, two Deputies and one general were acquitted the next year. The amount involved was estimated to be equal to eighteen million contemporary dollars plus an additional fifty-four million that came within months of fruition. The destination of Stavisky's wealth is still unknown.
The Stavisky Affair left France internally weakened. France remained deeply divided against itself for the rest of the decade, however, the political weaknesses it exposed and exacerbated were not confined to France. The Stavisky Affair was emblematic of a broader erosion of democratic values and institution in post World War I Europe.
SCANDALS IN WESTERN EUROPE ELICIT OUTRAGE AT BALLOT BOX, NEW MORALITY AT ISSUE ARE ENTRENCHED PARTIES, INFLUENCE-PEDDLING, CRONYISM
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