: سنڌي, Devanagari script
: सिन्धी, Sindhī
) is the language of the Sindh
region of South Asia
, which is a province of Pakistan
. It is an Indo-Aryan language
spoken by approximately 41 million people in Pakistan
, and 12 million in India
; it is the second most spoken language of Pakistan, a recognized official language in Pakistan and also an official language in India. Government of Pakistan
issues National Identity Cards to its citizens only in two languages, i.e. Sindhi and Urdu. Although the language is predominantly Indo-Aryan, it also shows signs of heavy Dravidian
influence. Most Sindhi speakers in Pakistan
are concentrated in the Sindh
province. The remaining speakers are found in India and amongst the Sindhi diaspora community which are scattered throughout the world. The Sindhi language has spread as the Hindu Sindhis left Sindh
during the Independence of Pakistan
in 1947. The language is written in Devanagari script by Sindhi Hindus; however, with the conversion of most Sindhis to Islam
, a modified Arabic
script was produced. After the independence of both India and Pakistan from British rule
, the Government of India introduced Devanagari
, alongside the modified Arabic
, for writing Sindhi.
Sindhi is taught as a first language in the schools of Sindh and second language in Balochistan
In India, especially in the State of Maharashtra
, many educational institutions managed by Sindhi community and in the schools of such society Sindhi is taught either as the medium of instruction or as a subject. Sindhi has a vast vocabulary; this has made it a favourite of many writers and consequently much literature and poetry have been written in Sindhi. Dialects of Sindhi are spoken in southern Punjab
, Northwest province of Pakistan (NWFP), and also Gujarat
as well as Rajasthan
Arab and Persian travellers, specifically Abu-Rayhan Biruni
in his book 'Mal al-Hind
', had declared that even before the advent of Islam in Sindh (711 A.D.), the language was prevalent in the region. It was not only widely spoken but written in different scripts. Biruni
has described many Sindhi words leading to the conclusion that the Sindhi language was widely spoken and rich in vocabulary in his time.
The Qur'an was first translated into Sindhi in rhymatic format. This was the first ever translation of Qur'an in the 12th century or earlier.
Sindhi was a very popular literary language between the 14th and 18th centuries. This is when sufis such as Shah Abdul Latif, Sachal Sarmast,Lal Shahbaz Qalandar (as well as numerous others) narrated their theosophical poetry depicting the relationship between humans and God.
Sindhi Culture is estimated to be about 4108 years old; When Mohenjo Daro ("Mound of the Dead", an ancient city of the Indus Valley civilization) was dug out, a statue was found covered in Ajrak, which is one of the symbols of Sindhi culture.
- Keeyen aahyo?- "how are you?" (general greeting)
- Ma theek aahiyan - "Very well".
- Meherbani - "Thank you"
- Meherbani karay - "Please"
- Ha - "Yes"
- Na - "No"
- Keeyen ahyo/Kehra haal aahin - "How are you?"
- Maa/Aaon teekh ahyaan - "I'm fine"
- Allah wahi - "Goodbye" (used to end a conversation by Muslim Sindhis)
- Theekh aah- "Goodbye" (used to end a conversation by Hindu Sindhis)
- Tawhanjo naalo cha aahaye - "What's your name?"
- Munhenjo naalo ______ aahaye. - "My name is _____."
- Hik - "One"
- Ba - "Two"
- Tay - "Three"
- Maa/Aaon Sindh jo aahya/ Maa/Aaon Sindh maa ahyaa - "I am from Sindh"
- Maa/Aaon musulman / hindhu aahya - "I am Muslim / Hindu"
- Maa/Aaon Sindhi aahya / Assin Sindhi aahyoo - "I am Sindhi" / "We are Sindhis"
- Allah Wahi - "God bless you"
Sindhi has a large sound inventory. It has 46 distinctive consonant phonemes
(more than all the phonemes of English
combined) and a further 16 vowels
. All plosives
, the retroflex flap
and the lateral approximant
/l/ have aspirated
or breathy voiced
counterparts. The language also features four separate implosives
The retroflex consonants are apical postalveolar, as they are throughout northern India, and so could be transcribed . The affricates are laminal post-alveolars with a relatively short release. It is not clear if /ɲ/ is similar, or truly palatal. /ʋ/ is realized as [w] or [ʋ] in free variation. /n/ occurs, but is not common, except before a stop (/nd/ etc).
The vowels are modal length and short . (Note are imprecisely transcribed as in the chart.) Consonants following short vowels are lengthened: [pɐ̆tˑo] 'leaf' vs. [pɑto] 'worn'.
, Sindhi is written in a variant of the Persian alphabet
, which was adopted under the encouragement of the British when Sindh fell to them in the 19th century. It has a total of 52 letters, augmenting the Persian with digraphs
and eighteen new letters, ڄ
for sounds particular to Sindhi and other Indo-Aryan languages. Some letters that are distinguished in Arabic or Persian are homophones in Sindhi.
|| ا |
|| * |
|| ڃ |
|| ɲ |
|| ڙھ |
|| ɽʱ |
|| ڪ |
|| k |
, the Devanagari
script is used. It was introduced by the Government of India in 1948; however, it did not gain full acceptance, so both the Sindhi-Arabic and Devanagari scripts are used Diacritical
bars below the letter are used to mark implosive consonants, and dots
are used to form other additional consonants.
|| औ |
|| ɔ |
|| ङ |
|| ŋ |
|| ञ |
|| ɲ |
|| ण |
|| ɳ |
|| न |
|| n |
|| म |
|| m |
|| ʋ |