Definitions

Shimonoseki

Shimonoseki

[shim-uh-nuh-sey-kee; Japn. shee-maw-naw-se-kee]
Shimonoseki, city (1990 pop. 262,635), Yamaguchi prefecture, extreme SW Honshu, Japan. An important port and fishing center on Shimonoseki Strait, it is opposite Kitakyushu, with which it is connected by bridge and tunnel. Shimonoseki is a railroad and industrial center, with engineering works, shipyards, and metal and chemical plants. It is also a port, with ferry connections to Busan (Pusan), South Korea. In the city is Akamagu, a 12th-century shrine dedicated to Emperor Antoku and to the Taira clan, which was defeated at Shimonoseki by the Minamoto clan in the famous naval battle of Dan-no-ura. In 1864 a fleet of U.S., British, French, and Dutch ships bombarded the port in retaliation for hostile acts of the Choshu clan. The Treaty of Shimonoseki, which ended the Sino-Japanese War, was negotiated and signed in 1895. The Shimonoseki Aquarium is the largest in Japan.
Shimonoseki, Treaty of, Apr. 17, 1895, ending the First Sino-Japanese War. It was negotiated and signed by Ito Hirobumi for Japan and Li Hung-chang for China. Harsh terms were imposed on a badly defeated China. The treaty provided for the end of Chinese suzerainty over Korea, giving Korea independence, and for the cession to Japan of Taiwan, the Pescadores islands, and Port Arthur and the Liaodong peninsula. Japan also imposed a large indemnity and forced China to open five new treaty ports. A week after the treaty was signed, however, Russia, France, and Germany together—in the so-called Triple Intervention—demanded that Japan renounce claims to Port Arthur and the Liaodong peninsula. Japan reluctantly agreed (Nov., 1895), but China was forced to pay an additional indemnity.
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