Definitions

Shammar

Shammar

The tribe of Shammar (Arabic: شمّر Šammar) is one of the largest tribes of Arabia, with over 1 million strong in Saudi Arabia concentrated in Hail, an estimated 1.5 Million in Iraq, Kuwaiti population centered in Aljahra is around 100,000, Palestinian population that was not displaced by war is the house of Abu Ghousa , Syrian, Jordanian, and Egyptian population estimates are still unknown. In its golden age circa 1850, the tribe ruled much of central and northern Arabia from Riyadh to the frontiers of Syria and the bast area known as Aljazeera in NorthernIraq.

Origins

The Shammar is a tribal confederation made up of three main branches: the 'Abdah, the Aslam, and the Sinjara'. According to the tribe's oral tradition, the Shammar originated from a bedouin Yemeni tribe called the Dhayaghem who immigrated northwards, conquering the area around the twin mountains of Aja and Salma in northern Nejd from a local chief known only as "Bahij". The first mention of Shammar comes from the 14th century. The area of the two mountains subsequently came to be known as Jabal Shammar ("Shammar's Mountain") from that time. In modern times, it has become common to link the Shammar with the tribe of Tayy, the ancient inhabitants of that area, and some genealogists believe that Shammar may have indeed absorbed some remnants of that tribe.

History

The first chiefs of the Shammar tribe were the family of Dhaigham, (arar & Omair ) from 'abda. In the 1600s, a large section of the Shammar left Jabal Shammar under the leadership of Al Jarba and settled in Iraq, reaching as far as the northern city of Mosul. The Shammar are currently one of the largest tribes in Iraq, and are divided into two large branches. The northern branch, known as Shammar al-Jarba, is mainly Sunni, while the southern branch, Shammar Toga, converted to Shi'ism after settling in southern Iraq.

The Shammar that remained in Arabia had their tribal territories in the area around the city of Ha'il, and extending from Ha'il northwards to the frontiers of the Syrian Desert. The Shammar had a long traditional rivalry with the confederation of 'Anizzah, who inhabited the same area.

The city of Ha'il became the heart of the Jabal Shammar region and was inhabited largely by settled members of Shammar and their clients. Two clans succeeded each other in ruling the city in the 19th century. The first clan, the Al Ali, were replaced by the Al Rashid with their uncles Al Sabhan, who pledged allegiance to the Al Saud family in Riyadh. Both these clans belonged to the 'Abda section of Shammar.

During the civil war that tore apart the Second Saudi State in the late 19th century, the emirs ("rulers") of Ha'il from Al Rashid intervened and were able to gradually take control of much of the Saudi realm, finally taking over the Saudi capital Riyadh in 1895 and expelling the Saudi leaders to Kuwait. The bedouin Shammari tribesmen provided the majority of the Al Rashid's military support.

The Al Rashid were defeated by Ibn Saud during his campaign to restore his family's rule in the Arabian Peninsula in the first two decades of the 20th century, with Jabal Shammar falling to Saudi rule in 1921. Later, some sections of Shammar were incorporated in the Ikhwan militias loyal to Ibn Saud. Ibn Saud also married a daughter of one of the Shammari chiefs, who bore him the current Saudi king, Abdullah.

After the establishment of modern borders, most bedouins gradually left their nomadic lifestyle. Today, most members of Shammar live in Saudi Arabia and Iraq, and some sections have settled in Syria and Jordan.

Shammar in Iraq

Under the leadership of Banu Mohamad known as Al Jarba, their was a massive exodus into Iraq. Many of the Shammar in Iraq gave up the nomadic life to settle in the major cities, especially the Jazirah plain, which is the area between the Tigris and Euphrates from Baghdad all the way to Mosul. In times of drought, there were several migrations of Shammar into Iraq, which according to the Ottoman census upon its annexation, had only 1.5 million inhabitants. Today, Alhuchaim tribes of Samawa has a large majority of Shammar. Clans from Abda in Ain Tamur, Hacham of Alaslam in Souq Alshiokh, Aladhadh of Alaslam in the city of Nasiriyah are a few examples of Shammar outside of the Jazirah. The Shammar took over the Jazirah after displasing Al-Ubaid tribe. According to the shiekh abdullah humaid Alyawar , the son of the shiekh of all of Shammar, In Iraq the total population of Shammar is estimated to be 1.5 million.Abdullah alyawar also stated that the majority of Shammar in Iraq is in the South and Shia, but it does not affect the tribe's unity. Iraq is also the home of Aljarba, the Shiekh ("chief") of all of Shammar. The Shammar Alsayeh clan is the only branch of Shammar who had for some time rejected Aljraba's authority.

In Iraq the Shammar became one of the most powerful tribes, owning vast tracts of land. They were important supporters of the Iraqi monarchy of the House of Hashem. Shammar power was threatened after the overthrow of the monarchy in 1958 by Abdul-Karim Qassem, and the Shammar welcomed Ba'athist rule. With the rivalry between Saudi Arabia and Saddam Hussein, the tribe of Shammar lost favour in Iraq, due to their close links to their Saudi relatives. After the overthrow of Saddam, Ghazi al-Yawar, from the Al Jarbah clan, was unanimously chosen as interim president. His uncle is the current Shiekh of Shiekhs of the tribe of Shammar. Samir, an Iraqi-American Shammari, pulled Saddam out of his "spider hole" in the famous picture of the capture of Saddam.

Timeline

  • 1171-1172 Abda Joins Saladin against the crusaders Internet source sights an Arabic source below
  • 1442 The city of Mujmaa is built by abdullah ibn saif alwibari alshammari
  • 1521 (Circa) the name shammar becomes prominent
  • 1522 Shammar backs bani Khalid again aluyonien
  • 1609 Shammar unites with Bani Khalid against the sheriff of Makkah
  • 1690 Exodus into Iraq Reference(JFW)P.43
  • 1696 Shammar Raids Baghdad (JFW)P.43
  • 1749-1762 Shammar raids reaches northern baghdad despite the strong ruler Sulaiman abul laila
  • 1750-1760 Wahabi movement emerges
  • 1765 alaslam and zaghareet between Heet and karabla (JFW)P.44
  • 1779 Jabal Shammar falls to saudi Domination PA)
  • 1780 Shammar joins bani Kahlid and Muntafig and the Sheriff of Mecca to attack Alsaud they win
  • 1790 Early that year Wahabis raid southern Iraq P46
  • 1790 Shammar is allied with the Sherif of Mecca against Alasaud. Muslat Iben mutlag is killed Shammar lost 6000 camlles and 10000 sheep PAO
  • 1791 Alsaud launches a surprise attack on Shammar and wins two battles 70 miles SE of Hayel
  • 1791 Late that year some Shamaris join other bedouins in an attacke against Alsaud and Muslit bin mutlag dies
  • 1791 Mutlag Aljarba takes Shammar to safer places in southern Iraq
  • 1792 Sheikh abudl Wahab dies, Wahabi forces raid southern Iraq defeating Bani Khalid JFW P.46
  • 1792 Mohamad Bin Abdul mohsin Bin Ali Also believed to be "Alsamn alurabi" becomes Emir of Hail internet source
  • 1795 Saudi forces attack Shammar near Samawa and Mutlag is killed PAO 35
  • 1797 Alsaud attacks north of Soug Alshiokh, Faris Bin mohamma aljarba takes over, Wahabis tunred back (JFW)
  • 1798 A large coalition including Shammar alubaid and Ottoman Armies more than 500 strong goes to Basra) and Mutlag dies(JFW)47
  • 1799 Ali basha leaves Zuabir with new allies from almuntafig, althufair, and bani Khalid and fights for a year(JFW)
  • 1800 Truce is broken and an indecisive battle take place near karbala with the Wahabi's(JFW)
  • 1801 Wahabi pressure on Southern Iraq subsides, Shammar migrates to reach Jabal Sinjar in norhtern Iraq(JFW). The Shiite holy city of Karbala was raided by 10k men on 6k camels plundering Hussien's tomb
  • 1802 Late that year, an anti Yezedi capagin was launced By the Ottomans, shammar, and Alubaid (JFW)P50
  • 1803 Ottoman seeks Shammar's help in a campaign against Al ubaid mutiny, campaign fails (JFW)50
  • 1805 Faris Aljarba decisively defeats Alubaid(JFW)50
  • 1808-1812 Baghdad comes under Saudi threats
  • 1809 Anti Thufair rebellion Ottoman- campaign unfer Faris aljarba and Sulaimna Basha alsaghir, Althufair and Rola Triomph
  • 1814 Shammar aljarba raids several Iraqi cities
  • 1815 Khazaal, Zuabair, and Shammar Rebell against Said Basha Uniza, alubaid, and thufair put down the rebellion, Shiekh Banaia is killed in battle
  • 1818 Shiekh Sfoug bin Faris Aljarba Takes over JFW 61. Mohamad Bin Abdul mohsin Bin Ali is beheaded by Ibrahim Pasah and sent to his father Mohamad Ali Pasha in Egypt (Hail online Arabic reference). Dirayiya is under siege 2000 cavalry 56000 infantry and 12 guns
  • 1820s Mohamad bin Ali was killed and his brother Saleh becomes ruler of town PAO
  • 1822 Shammar's Sfoug aljarba defeats a 40 thousand strong Persian army meant for Baghdad JFW 70
  • 1823 Anna is bequeathed to Sfoug
  • 1824 Uniza raids Shammar and steals there Arabian horses
  • 1826-1926 Period of little information
  • 1831 Shammar aids the Ottoman siege of Baghdad to remove its rebellious Dawood Pasha JFW 73
  • 1832 Shammar retaliates against Ali Pasha and declares rebellion JFW 77
  • 1832 Uniza is forced to leave Syria's desert and enter aljazera 35000 man strong due to the Egyptian invasion of Syria
  • 1833 Two Pashas join the rebellion and attack the yazidis in Sinjar to stop their looting
  • 1833 July Shammar Sieges Baghdad and intercepts all Ottoman correspondence 20-30 MIles North JFW 78

Abdull bin Rashid thevfuture founder of the emirate of Hail is said to have participated

  • 1833 5000 Ottomans under Mohamad Pasha leave a rebellion near Hilla and attack Shammar, siege remains active JFW 79
  • 1833 late that year Shammar moves north to help Mosul's Pasha, Siege is broken and ottomans launch a successful sprise attack
  • 1834 Rogue Shiekh Shlash of Shammar attacks Uniza supporting the ottomans, Sfoug supprts shalsh with 2000 men Uniza wins
  • 1835 Uniza cross the Euphrates and leaves Aljazeera
  • 1835 Shammar is at the peak of its power in aljazeera and Sfoug Aljarba is Soultan Albar
  • 1835 Rahseed Pasha ambushed Sfoug and his son Farhan and exiles him to the Istana
  • 1835 Shammar retaliates by raiding and destroying the fields of Tikrit
  • 1836 Battles Insue between Shammar and Uniza, Sfoug's brother Faris bin Mohamad rules over 12000 families Mohamad Ali Pasha forces reach Yanbo for a second invasion of Arabia
  • 1836 Alrashid establish an emirate centered at Hail
  • 1837 Shammar's unity fragments In Iraq
  • 1840 Shammar Jarba attacks the Egyptians at Orfa
  • 1841 Anna is taken away from Sfoug
  • 1842 Shammar jarba retaliates by raiding near alkhabor, some internal splintering
  • 1843 Sfoug is reappointed as Shammar's Shiekh
  • 1844 Shammar Jarba raids Uniza near Harran, famine year
  • 1844 Summer, Unizaa brings 20000 mean and raids areas between baghdad and Mosul
  • 1844 Shammar, only 1000 men, allies with Kurdish cavalry to expel Uniza. Fighting continues in the Fall
  • 1845 Uniza seeks a truce and gives 15000 sheep, 3000 camels, and 8 horses,
  • 1845 Shammar Jarba defeats Uniza and spoils 7000 sheep, famine strike Shammar
  • 1846 Farhan becomes the Shiekh of Shiekhs the runner up from the other six brothers is abdulkareem
  • 1846? Abdulkarim declares a revolution against the ottomans he is delivered by Naser Alsadoun to Ottomans and hanged
  • 1847 Internal fighting between rebellious Shammaris, Sfoug is assassinated and beheaded by Najeeb Pasha
  • 1847 December, Shammar raids aljazeera, Najeeb Pasha appoints Oda as Shiekh
  • 1848 Spring Uniza raids Shammar under Daham Ibn Gaishish and Ibnn Hath-thal.
  • 1850-1851 Abdi Pasha stops his Shammar rations, Shammar raids Sothern Baghdad. JFW 108
  • 1853-1856 Ottoman control plummeted outside of big cities
  • 1901 Mach Alsarif Battle: 1200 Shammaris lost 400 under abdul aziz almutab Alrashid defeat an invasion of Hayel against the Emir of Kuwait over 64000 men and lost 9000.
  • 1910 March Hadya Battle: 500 shammari horsmen join alsadoun on 4000 in a battle again Sabah baked by Abdulaziz alsaud and defeat them
  • 1920 Zuba participates in Iraq's 1920 revolution against the British
  • 1932 population estaimates of Hail's population is 20000, badu Shammar 150k-200k: 30% alaslam,37% Abde, 25% sinjara, Tuman 7.5%
  • 1947, December (معركة زرعين)
  • 1948 Shammar is driven out of Naqab desert south of Palestine by Israeli forces
  • Feb 16 1948 Zaraa Battle (معركة الزراعة في تاريخ 16 شباط 1948)
  • April 10th 1948 Almanara (معركة المنارة ومعركة رأس العين في تاريخ 10 نيسان 1948)
  • 1948, October Naqab battle 143 shammaris join the Arab army to reclaim Naqab

Main sections

  • ABDA

(CLANS)

Aljaafar -ruler of shammar comes from this clan.

Alrubaeya - sub clan of rubeya sharefat,gesham,zagareet,nabhan

Alyihya

  • ALASLAM

(CLANS)

Almanee' - Albu Salih, Fayid, Twalah, Masud and Kamel (subclans)

Alsultah -al jarba the sheiks of shammar come from this clan

Aladhadh

  • ZOBA'

(CLANS)

Zoba'

Althabit

Alghafilah

Alzameel

References

  • The History of Shmmar by John Frederich Williamson (Arabic)
  • Madawi Al Rasheed: Politics in an Arabian oasis. The Rashidi Tribal Dynasty. I.B. Tauris & Co Ltd, London & New York 1991 (based on a Ph.D. thesis presented to Cambridge University, 1988). ISBN 1-85043-320-8 (English)
  • The Tribes of Iraq by Abbas Alazzawi (Arabic)
  • The Days of the Arabs before Islam by Alfudaily (Arabic )
  • A comprehnsive history of Shammar by Amer Aladhadh(English)
  • Tayy (Shammar) tribe oficial website
  • for Iraq: Tribal Structure, Social, and Political Activities Hussein D. HassanInformation Research SpecialistForeign Affairs, Defense, and Trade ConsultancyKnowledge Services Grou.(0.09 seconds)

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