One of the nonessential amino acids, found in substantial concentrations (sometimes 5–10percnt) in many common proteins. It is also an important component of phospholipids. It is used in biochemical and microbiological research and as a dietary supplement and feed additive.
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The biosynthesis of serine starts with the oxidation of 3-phosphoglycerate to 3-phosphohydroxypyruvate and NADH. Reductive amination of this ketone followed by hydrolysis gives serine. Serine hydroxymethyltransferase catalyzes the reversible, simultaneous conversions of L-serine to glycine (retro-aldol cleavage) and 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate to 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate (hydrolysis).
Serine is important in metabolism in that it participates in the biosynthesis of purines and pyrimidines. It is also the precursor to several amino acids, including glycine, cysteine, and, in bacteria, tryptophan. It is also the precursor to numerous of other metabolites, including sphingolipids. Serine is also a precursor to folate, which is the principal donor of one carbon fragments in biosynthesis.
As a constituent (residue) of proteins, its side chain can undergo O-linked glycosylation, which may be functionally related to diabetes. It is one of three amino acid residues that are commonly phosphorylated by kinases during cell signaling in eukaryotes. Phosphorylated serine residues are often referred to as phosphoserine. Serine proteases are a common type of protease.
D-Serine inhibits AMPA receptor-mediated current in rat hippocampal neurons.([alpha]-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate)(Report)
May 01, 2007; Abstract: D-Serine, a recently identified gliotransmitter, serves as an endogenous coagonist binding to the glycine site...
"D-Serine Transporter Inhibitors as Pharmaceutical Compositions for the Treatment of Central Nervous System Disorders" in Patent Application Approval Process
Jan 16, 2013; By a News Reporter-Staff News Editor at Biotech Week -- A patent application by the inventors Foster, Alan C. (San Diego, CA);...
A serine protease from the midgut of the bumblebee, Bombus ignitus (Hymenoptera: Apidae): cDNA cloning, gene structure, expression and enzyme activity
Jan 01, 2007; Key words. Apidae, baculovirus expression vector, Bombus ignitus, bumblebee, cDNA cloning, enzyme, expression, gene structure,...