Stricker is remembered for his extensive research in the fields of histology and experimental pathology, and is credited with the discovery of diapedesis of erythrocytes. Among his written works is the 1871 Handbuch der Lehre von den Geweben des Menschen und der Thiere, a two-volume textbook that contains Stricker's essays on histology, along with the works of several other important physicians. During its time, it was considered one of the greatest textbooks concerning histology.
His one-time pupil, Sigmund Freud regarded Stricker as a major influence, especially regarding the interpretation of dreams. Freud mentions Stricker's theory regarding the importance of fear in dreams. Stricker believed that the affect of fear in a dream had separate significance from all other contents of the same dream. It is also reported that Freud began his experimentation with cocaine as a local anaesthetic at Stricker's institute.