Leading scientific society in Britain and the oldest national scientific society in the world. Founded in 1660, its early members included Robert Hooke, Christopher Wren, Isaac Newton, and Edmond Halley. It has long provided an impetus to scientific thought and research in the U.K., and its achievements have become internationally famous. The society's Philosophical Transactions, the oldest scientific periodical in continuous publication, has published papers since 1665. The society awards several prizes, the most prestigious being the Copley Medal. At the beginning of the 21st century, the society had some 1,300 fellows and 130 foreign members.
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Major British theatrical company. It was originally attached to the Shakespeare Memorial Theatre in Stratford-upon-Avon, which opened in 1879 as the site of an annual festival of William Shakespeare's plays. The resident company was called the Shakespeare Memorial Company until 1961, when it was renamed and reorganized into two units, one to play at Stratford and the other to be based in London. The Stratford unit performs plays by Shakespeare and other Elizabethan and Jacobean playwrights, while the London unit, based at the Barbican arts complex, also performs modern plays and classics of other eras.
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British theatre company. It was formed in 1962 as the National Theatre with Laurence Olivier as director (1962–73) and included many actors from the Old Vic company. In 1976 the company moved from London's Old Vic Theatre to a newly constructed three-theatre complex on the southern bank of the Thames. In 1988 Queen Elizabeth II gave the company permission to add “Royal” to its name. Partly subsidized by the state, the theatre presents a mixed classic and modern repertoire. Its directors have included Peter Hall (1973–88), Richard Eyre (1988–97), Sir Trevor Nunn (1997–2003), and Nicholas Hytner (from 2003).
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Astronomical observatory, oldest scientific institution in Britain, founded for navigational purposes in 1675 by Charles II at Greenwich, England. Its main contributions have been in navigation, timekeeping, determination of star positions, and almanac publication. In 1767 it began publishing The Nautical Almanac, based on the time at the longitude of Greenwich; its popularity among navigators led in part to the Greenwich meridian's being made Earth's prime meridian and the starting point for international time zones in 1884 (see Greenwich Mean Time).
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Federal police force of Canada. It is also the criminal and provincial force in all provinces except Ontario and Quebec and the only force in the Yukon, Northwest, and Nunavut territories. It was founded as the North West Mounted Police (1873) with a force of 300 men to bring order to western Canada, where U.S. traders were creating havoc by trading whiskey to the Indians for furs. That success was followed by peacekeeping in the Klondike gold rush (1898) and later settlement of the west. The group assumed its current name in 1920, when it became a federal force and its headquarters were moved to Ottawa.
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English ballet company and school. In 1931 Ninette de Valois and Lilian Baylis organized the Vic-Wells Ballet, naming it for the two theatres (Old Vic and Sadler's Wells) where it performed. In the 1940s the group was called the Sadler's Wells Ballet, after its theatre; it moved to Covent Garden in 1946. Alicia Markova, Margot Fonteyn, and Robert Helpmann were among the company's early members. By the 1950s the Sadler's Wells Ballet had expanded to include its own school and a separate touring company; in 1956 it received a royal charter and was renamed the Royal Ballet. Dancers such as Rudolf Nureyev and choreographers such as Frederick Ashton, Kenneth MacMillan, and Bronislava Nijinska were associated with the company.
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Britain's national academy of art. It was founded in 1768 by George III. Its first president (1768–92) was Joshua Reynolds. The number of its members, who are selected by members and associates, is fixed at 40; members' names are frequently followed by the initials R.A. (“Royal Academician”). Its galleries contain works by such former members as Thomas Gainsborough and J.M.W. Turner. The academy opened a new wing, the Sackler Galleries, in 1991.
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There were 128 households out of which 24.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.9% were married couples living together, 6.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 36.7% were non-families. 32.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 21.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.18 and the average family size was 2.78.
In the village the population was spread out with 19.4% under the age of 18, 5.4% from 18 to 24, 28.7% from 25 to 44, 25.8% from 45 to 64, and 20.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females there were 87.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.7 males.
The median income for a household in the village was $47,188, and the median income for a family was $60,833. Males had a median income of $39,167 versus $26,250 for females. The per capita income for the village was $22,019. None of the families and 0.6% of the population were living below the poverty line, including no under eighteens and 3.8% of those over 64.