Rotary International is an organization of service clubs known as Rotary Clubs located all over the world. It is a secular organization open to all persons regardless of race, color or creed. There are more than 32,000 clubs and over 1.2 million members world-wide. The members of Rotary Clubs are known as Rotarians. The stated purpose of the organization is to bring together business and professional leaders to provide humanitarian service, encourage high ethical standards in all vocations, and help build goodwill and peace in the world. Members usually meet weekly for breakfast, lunch or dinner, which is a social event as well as an opportunity to organize work on their service goals.
Rotary's best-known motto is "Service above Self", and its secondary motto is "They profit most who serve best".
The objective of Rotary is to encourage and foster the ideal of service as a basis of worthy enterprise and, in particular, to encourage and foster:
This objective is further set against the "Rotarian four-way test", used to see if a planned action is compatible with the Rotarian spirit. The test was developed by Rotarian and entrepreneur Herbert J. Taylor during the Great Depression as a set of guidelines for restoring faltering businesses and was adopted as the standard of ethics by Rotary in 1942. It is still seen as a standard for ethics in business management:
The first Rotary Club was formed in Chicago by attorney Paul P. Harris on February 23, 1905, Harris held the first meeting with three friends, Silvester Schiele, coal merchant, Gustave E. Loehr, mines engineer and Hiram E. Shorey, tailor. The members chose the name Rotary because they rotated club meetings to each member's office each week.
The National Association of Rotary Clubs was formed in 1910. The same year, Rotary chartered a branch in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, marking the first establishment of an American-style service club outside the United States. This was followed in 1911 by the founding of the first club outside North America in Dublin, Ireland.
In 1922, because branches had been formed in six continents, the name was changed to Rotary International. By 1925, Rotary had grown to 200 clubs with more than 20,000 members.
Rotary Clubs in Spain 'ceased to operate' shortly after the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War.
In Germany, no club had been formed before 1927 due to the "opposition from the continental clubs". For a while after 1933, Rotary Clubs 'met with approval' of the Nazi authorities and were considered to offer 'opportunity for party comrades ... to provide enlightenment regarding the nature and policy of the National Socialist movement'. The Nazis, although they saw international organizations as suspect, had authorised NSDAP members to be members of the Rotary through Nazi Party's court rulings issued in 1933, 1934 and 1936, and in 1937, more than half the rotarians were Nazi Party members.
Six German Clubs were formed after Hitler came to power. They came under pressure almost immediately to expel their Jewish members.
Rotary clubs do not appear to have had a unified policy towards the Nazi regime: while several German Rotary Clubs decided to disband their organizations in 1933, others practiced a policy of appeasement or collaborated. In Munich the club removed from its members' list a number of Rotarians, Jewish and non-Jewish, who were politically unacceptable for the regime, including Thomas Mann (already in exile in Switzerland). Twelve members resigned in "sympathy with the expelled members".
Beginning 1937 however, hostile articles were published in the Nazi press about Rotary, comparing Rotary with Freemasonry. Soon after that, the incompatibility between Nazism and the international humanitarian organization resulted in two decisions which would jeopardize the existence of the Rotary in Germany: in June 1937, the ministry of the interior forbade civil servants to be members of the Rotary, and in July, the NSDAP's party court reverted its previous rulings and declared Party and Rotarian membership incompatible as from January 1938.
Rotary's cause was advocated before the NSDAP party court by Dr. Grill, Governor for the Rotary 73d district, arguing that the German Rotary was compliant with the goals of the Nazi government, had excluded Freemasons in 1933 and non-Aryans in 1936 . Other attempts were made, also by foreign Rotarians but appeasement failed this time, and in September 1937, the 73rd district dissolved itself. Subsequently the charter of German clubs was withdrawn by the Rotary International, although some clubs continued to meet 'privately'.
Clubs were disbanded across Europe as follows:
Rotarian clubs in Eastern Europe were also disbanded from 1947 to 1989, under the communist regimes.
In 1985, Rotary launched its PolioPlus program to immunize all of the world's children against polio. In 2005 Rotary claimed to have contributed half a billion dollars to the cause, resulting in the immunization of nearly two billion children worldwide.
Rotary started opening new clubs in former communist countries and the first Russian club was chartered in 1990.
As of 2006, Rotary has more than 1.2 million members in over 32,000 clubs among 200 countries and geographical areas, making it the most widespread by branches and second largest service club by membership, behind Lions Club International. The number of Rotarians has slightly declined in recent years: Between 2002 and 2006, they went from 1,245,000 to 1,223,000 members. North America accounts for 450,000 members, Asia for 300,000, Europe for 250,000, Latin America for 100,000, Oceania for 100,000 and Africa for 30,000.
In order to carry out its service programs, Rotary is structured in club, district and international levels. Rotarians are members of their clubs. The clubs are chartered by the global organization Rotary International (RI) headquartered in Evanston, a suburb of Chicago. For administration purposes, the more than 32,000 clubs worldwide are grouped into 529 districts, and the districts into 34 zones.
Each club elects its own president and officers among its active members for a one year term. The clubs enjoy considerable autonomy within the framework of the standard constitution and the constitution and bylaws of Rotary International. The governing body of the club is the board of directors, which consists of president-elect, vice president, club secretary and treasurer, chaired by club president. The immediate past president is a de facto member of the board. The club president appoints the chairmen of the four main task groups for club service, vocational service, community service and international service.
A district governor, who is an officer of Rotary International and represents the RI board of directors in the field, leads Rotary districts. The governor is nominated by the clubs of the district and elected by all the clubs meeting in the annual RI Convention held in a different country each year. To assist him with his duties, the district governor appoints assistant governors from among the Rotarians of the district.
Approximately 15 Rotary districts form a zone. A zone director, who serves as a member of the RI board of directors, heads two zones. The zone director is nominated by the clubs in the zone and elected by the convention for the terms of two consecutive years.
Rotary International is governed by a board of directors composed of 17 zone directors, a president-elect and an international president. The nomination and the election of the president are based on zones. The international president, the highest officer of the organization, is elected for a term of one year. The board meets quarterly to establish policies.
The chief administrative officer of RI is the general secretary, who heads a staff of about 600 persons working at the headquarters and in seven international offices around the world.
Active membership is by invitation from a current Rotarian, to professionals working in diverse areas of endeavor. Each club can have up to ten per cent of its membership representing each business or profession in the area it serves. The goal of the clubs is to promote service to the community they work in, as well as to the wider world. Many projects are organized for the local community by a single club, but some are organized globally.
Honorary membership is given by election of a Rotary Club to people who have distinguished themselves by meritorious service in the furtherance of Rotary ideals. Honorary membership is conferred only in exceptional cases. Honorary members are exempt from the payment of admission fees and dues. They have no voting privileges and are not eligible to hold any office in their club. Honorary membership is time limited and terminates automatically at the end of the term, usually one year. It may be extended for an additional period or may also be revoked at any time. Examples of honorary members are heads of state or former heads of state, famous scientists or other famous people.
From 1905 until the 1980s, women were not allowed membership in Rotary clubs, although Rotarian spouses, including Paul Harris's wife, were often members of the similar "Inner Wheel" club. Women did play some roles and Paul Harris's wife made numerous speeches. In 1963, it was noted that the Rotary practice of involving wives in club activities had helped to break down female seclusion in some countries. Clubs such as Rotary had long been predated by women's voluntary organizations, which started in the United States as early as 1790.
Interestingly, the first Irish clubs discussed admitting women in 1912 but the proposal floundered over issues of social class.
Gender equity in Rotary International was first publicly raised by the Duarte Rotary Club affair. In 1976, the Duarte California club allowed three women to join. Rotary International expressed alarm but requests to terminate the women's memberships were rejected by the club. As a result, Rotary International revoked the club's charter in 1978. The Duarte club filed suit in the California courts, claiming that Rotary Clubs are business establishments subject to regulation under California's Unruh Civil Rights Act, which bans discrimination based on race, gender, religion or ethnic origin. Rotary International then appealed the decision to the U.S. Supreme Court. The RI attorney argued that "... [the decision] threatens to force us to take in everyone, like a motel". The Duarte Club was not alone in opposing RI leadership; the Seattle-International District club unanimously voted to admit women in 1986. The United States Supreme Court, on May 4, 1987, confirmed the Californian decision and, since that time, women have been allowed to join Rotary. The Elks, the final holdout among service clubs in prohibiting female membership, voted in 1995 to allow women. By 2007, there was a female trustee of Rotary's charitable wing The Rotary Foundation while female district governors and club presidents were common. Women accounted for 15% of international membership (22% in North America).
The change of the second Rotarian motto in 2004, from "He profits most who serves best" to "They profit most who serve best", 99 years after its foundation, illustrates the move to general acceptance of women members in Rotary.
Rotary and other service clubs in the last decade of the 20th century became open to homosexual membership. Other minorities, in the face of general changes in demographics and declining membership, are also encouraged to join. There have been efforts to reach out to minority communities, such as Oakland, California's $10,000 scholarships for students in inner-city schools.
There have been some individual exceptions; as early as 1963 a Hindu Bengali, Nitish Chandra Laharry, served as Rotary International's first Asian president. The past tendency to favor the "old boys club" has also passed; so it is no longer just legislation or membership pressures driving these trends: A study has shown that only 2% of middle aged men interested in joining a club were interested in joining exclusive male-only clubs.
The most notable current global project, PolioPlus, is contributing to the global eradication of polio. Since beginning the project in 1985, Rotarians have contributed over US$600 million and tens of thousands of volunteer-hours, leading to the inoculation of more than two billion of the world's children. Inspired by Rotary's commitment, the World Health Organization (WHO) passed a resolution in 1988 to eradicate polio by 2000. Now in partnership with WHO, UNICEF and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Rotary is recognized by the United Nations as the key private partner in the eradication effort.
There has been some limited criticism concerning the Rotary International program for polio eradication, which is supported with the help of World Health Organization. There are some reservations regarding the adaptation capabilities of the virus in some of the oral vaccines, which have been reported to cause infection in populations with low vaccination coverage. As stated by Vaccine Alliance, however, in spite of the limited risk of polio vaccination, it would neither be prudent nor practicable to cease the vaccination program until there is strong evidence that "all wild poliovirus transmission [has been] stopped". In a recent speech at the Rotary International Convention, held at the Bella Center in Copenhagen, Bruce Cohick stated that polio in all its known wild forms will be eliminated by late 2008, provided efforts in Nigeria, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India all proceed with their current momentum.
Rotary Fellowships, paid by the foundation launched in honor of Paul Harris in 1947, specialize in providing graduate fellowships around the world, usually in countries other than their own in order to provide international exposure and experience to the recipient. Recently, a new program was established known as the Rotary peace and Conflict Resolution program which provides funds for two years of graduate study in one of eight universitites around the world. Rotary is naming about seventy five of these scholars each year. The applications for these scholarships are found on line but each application must be endorsed by a local Rotary Club. Children and other close relatives of Rotarians are not eligible.
Starting in 2002, The Rotary Foundation partnered with eight universities around the world to create the Rotary Centers for International Studies in peace and conflict resolution. The universities include International Christian University (Japan), University of Queensland (Australia), Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Paris (Sciences Po) (France), University of Bradford (United Kingdom), Universidad del Salvador (Argentina), University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (U.S.), Duke University (U.S.), and University of California, Berkeley (U.S.) Rotary World Peace Fellows complete two year masters level programs in conflict resolution, peace studies, and international relations. The first class graduated in 2004. In 2004, Fellows established the Rotary World Peace Fellows Association to promote interaction among Fellows, Rotarians, and the public on issues related to peace studies.
While there are numerous Rotary-wide efforts, Rotary clubs are also encouraged to take part in local ventures; In a more unusual twist, Rosalie Maguire, a Batavia, New York, Rotarian, taking a cue from Calendar Girls convinced fellow members (a woman for each month and a male cover) to pose for a "nude" calendar sold as part of a $250,000 fundraiser for a local hospital. In the past, members were assessed mock "fines" for minor infractions as a way of raising funds: these fines could in 1951 range from 10 cents to $1,000.
Every Rotary club holds a regular weekly meeting on a workday in a public venue, which can be a hotel, a restaurant or a clubhouse within its locality. The location is determined, so that any member of another Rotary club can also attend the meeting. The club meeting lasts one to one-and-a-half hours and is held with catering, at noon or evening hours, while - there are also early morning meetings.Recently non-traditional meeting times have been explored such as late in the day and there are even "on-line" meetings. The club president, assisted by the club secretary, conducts the meeting. Attendance for all active club members at the club meetings is mandatory, that is each member must attend a Rotary meeting or event at least fifty per cent of the weeks in a year. Guests are invited to the meetings in order to inform non-Rotarian community members about the aim and the object of the Rotary and of the club.
The Club Assembly is a meeting of all club members, including the club’s officers, directors, and committee chairs, held for the purpose of conferring on the program and activities of the club or for membership education. It is held four to five appropriate times a Rotary fiscal year in place of the weekly club meeting. The club president presides at the club assembly. One club assembly is held at the governor's annual official visit to the club. Clubs usually hold a club assembly immediately after the district assembly and the district conference in order to receive reports on the programs and activities throughout the district.
The District Team Training Seminar is a one-day meeting, held in February, to prepare incoming assistant governors, district committee members and chairs for their year in office and to give district governors-elect the opportunity to motivate and build their district leadership team in order to support clubs.
The purpose of this one-and-a-half-day seminar, held in March, is to prepare incoming club presidents for their role.
The District Assembly is a one-day seminar, held in April or May, to prepare incoming Rotary club leaders and officers for their roles.
The District Leadership Seminar is held on a full-day immediately before or after the district conference to develop Rotarian leaders within the district, who have the necessary skills, knowledge, and motivation to serve in Rotary beyond the club level.
The purpose of this half- or one-day seminar, preferably held after the district assembly, is to develop club and district leaders, who have the necessary skills, knowledge, and motivation to support the clubs in the district to sustain or increase the membership base.
The District Rotary Foundation Seminar is a one-day-seminar to educate Rotarians about the programs of The Rotary Foundation and to motivate them to be strong participants and advocates of the Foundation. The seminar is the primary means of increasing awareness of TRF at the club level.
A conference of Rotarians is held for two to three full days once a year in each district with the purpose to further the "Object of Rotary" through fellowship, inspirational addresses, and the discussion of matters relating to the affairs of clubs in the district and RI generally. The district conference showcases Rotary programs and successful district and club activities, and encourage interaction and dialog among clubs.
The Governors-elect Training Seminar is a two-day training program for governors-elect at the zone level to be held in conjunction with Rotary institutes once a year. The training programs integrate topics approved by the RI Board and the trustees of The Rotary Foundation. Attendance at the GETS is mandatory for district governors-elect.
The International Assembly is a mandatory six-day training meeting for governors-elect with the purpose to provide Rotary education, instruction in administrative duties, motivation, and inspiration to governors-elect, and to afford them and other attendees an opportunity to discuss and plan how to implement Rotary’s programs and activities during the succeeding year.
Rotary institutes are zone-level meetings designed for the attendance and participation of past, present, and incoming RI officers residing within the area the institute is to serve. Institutes are informational meetings with no administrative responsibility or authority. The purpose of a Rotary institute is to inform current and past RI officers accurately concerning the policies and programs of RI and TRF; inspire, motivate, and inform governors for leadership. The RI president and president-elect participate in some institutes each year in order to enhance their knowledge and experience of the Rotary world and to provide opportunities for zone-level Rotary leaders to gain greater knowledge and insight into the current and future directions of Rotary.
The Rotary International Convention is an annual meeting, held in the last three months of the fiscal year (April, May, or June) each time in a different country. The primary purpose of the annual convention is to inspire and inform all Rotarians at an international level, particularly incoming club presidents, governors-elect, and other incoming club and RI officers, so that they will be motivated to further develop Rotary at club and district levels. The convention also constitutes the annual meeting and conducts the business of the association. Since the convention constitutes a worldwide gathering of the Rotary family, the celebration of fellowship with social and entertainment features is appropriate to the extent such activities do not detract from the convention’s primary purpose. It is the duty of each club to participate in the voting at each convention and to arrange to do so by having its delegates in attendance at each convention. At the worldwide event participate tens of thousands of Rotarians from hundreds of nations. At the 2005 Chicago Convention, a record was set with more than 39,460 attendees from 161 countries.
The Council on Legislation is a strenuous meeting, typically a week in length, where representatives from every Rotary district debate and vote on legislation proposed by clubs, districts, the RI Board, and the Council itself. The Council meets once every three years in April, May, or June, but preferably in April in the vicinity of RI World Headquarters, in the Chicago area. The council is the legislative body of RI, which has the authority to amend the RI constitutional documents. The voting members of the council are representatives selected by the clubs in each district in the Rotary year two years before each council.
The official and regional magazines are circulated to Rotarian and non-Rotarian subscribers. The combined circulation is more than 700,000 copies.
Rotary clubs issue weekly a bulletin full of Rotary news from recent meetings. Aside from meeting information and the name list of club directors and officers, the club bulletin contains club president's message, a summary of guest speaker's presentation, club projects and service activities, upcoming events, announcements and reminders for the members. It is circulated to the club members in printed form, however more and more clubs go paperless by publishing the club bulletin electronically.
District governors publish monthly a newsletter reporting service activities conducted by the clubs within the district and various district level meetings. The newsletter contains also district governor's message and lists also the membership and attendance figures of all district clubs. It is circulated to every Rotarian in the district.
Rotary International was portrayed in Steven Spielberg's film Catch Me If You Can. Frank Abagnale Jr.'s (played by Leonardo DiCaprio in the film) father, Frank William Abagnale (played by Christopher Walken) was a life time Rotarian in the film because he was a hero in World War II. The Italian song "Rotary Club of Malindi", which had a relative success on the world-music scene, speaks of an organization for "white people in depression". In the television show Desperate Housewives, Gabrielle attends Victor Lang's Rotary Club meeting in his ex-wife's couture dress. Stephen King’s novel, “The Library Policeman”, centers on Sam Peebles, a small town insurance agent who is called upon on short notice to give a speech to his Rotary Club on “The Importance of the Independently Owned Business in Small-town Life”. In season four episode five of the Larry David show "Curb Your Enthusiasm", titled "The 5 Wood", David is trying to gain entrance into a club whose members were generally non-Jewish Republicans. In the interview David makes up many lies about himself, one of which being that he is a member of the Rotary Club.