Rosh Pinna is a town (local council) of approximately 2,300 people located in the Upper Galilee on the eastern slopes of Mount Kna'anin, the Northern District of Israel. The town was founded in 1882 by thirty immigrant families from Romania, making it one of the oldest Zionist settlements in Israel. Rosh Pinna was officially recognized in 1953.
Rosh Pinna was known as Um-Juni, in Ottoman times.
The cemetery of Rosh Pinna, is the site where right-wing activists assembled to perform a 'Pulsa Dinura', a kabbalistic ceremony in which God is asked to curse someone who is believed to be a sinner. They gathered near Shlomo Ben Yosef’s grave, in 2005, called for the death of Ariel Ben-Dvora Sheinerman (Prime Minister Ariel Sharon).
In 1883, it became the first Jewish settlement in the Land of Israel to come under the patronage of the Baron Edmond James de Rothschild.
The first modern Jewish settlement in the Galilee, Gai Oni, was founded in 1878 by Jews who had lived in Safed since the Inquisition of 1492; however, it was abandoned after three years of drought. A year later, in 1882, a group of Romanian Jews built the first lasting settlement in the Galilee and named it Rosh Pinna, or cornerstone, after Psalm 118:22: "The stone which the builders refused is become the head stone of the corner." Then in 1884 Baron Edmond de Rothschild sponsored the settlement and made it the administrative center for his holdings.
Laurence Oliphant wrote about his visit to Rosh Pinna in 1886, "Jauna, which was the name of the village to which I was bound, was situated about three miles (5 km) from Safed, in a gorge, from which, as we descended it, a magnificent view was obtained over the Jordan valley, with the Lake of Tiberias lying three thousand feet below us on the right, and the waters of Merom, or the Lake of Huleh, on the left. The intervening plain was 3. rich expanse of country, only waiting development. The new colony hall been established about eight months, the land having been purchased from the Moslem villagers, of whom twenty families remained, who lived on terms of perfect amity with the Jews. These consisted of twenty - three Roumanian and four Russian families, numbering in all one hundred and forty souls. The greater number were hard at w ork on their potato-patches when I arrived, and I was pleased to find evidences of thrift and industry. A row of sixteen neat little houses had been built, and more were in process or erection. Altogether this is the most hopeful attempt at a colony which I have seen in Palestine. The colonists own about a thousand acres of excellent land, which they were able to purchase at from three to four dollars an acre. The Russians are establishing themselves about half a mile from the Roumanians, as Jews of different nationalities easily get on well together. They call the colony Rosch Pina, or "Head of the Corner," the word occurring in the verse," The stone which the builders rejected, the same is become the head of the comer.
On July 14 2006, two Katyusha rockets landed in an open area of Rosh Pinna. Nobody was injured in this attack. The Rosh Pinna airport was closed the previous day, July 13, as a precautionary measure.
PICA House provides an audio-visual presentation that tells the story of Rosh Pinna. PICA House served as an administrative center and residence for Baron Rothschild’s clerks, advisors, and agricultural counselors.
Baron Rothschild' Gardens, full of beauganvillia and pine trees, were designed by French landscape architect.
Mer house was the home of Professor Gideon Mer, one of the important contributors to the eradication of malaria in the 1930’s.
The town of Hazor is a few kilometers from Rosh Pinna. On its outskirts is the grave of Honi, the Circle maker, at famous Gallilean miracle makers.