The history starts way before the 6th century when a town called ‘Rothulfuashem’ (Rudolfsheim). Later about 900 there was a stronghold, which could explain the current name of the village Rijnsburg, which means 'Rhine fortress'
Rijnsburg used to be a separated municipality until 1 January 2006, when, together with Valkenburg, it was added to the municipality and city of Katwijk. Before that, the municipality covered an area of 6.07 km² (2.34 mile²) of which 0.21 km² (0.08 mile²) is water, and had a population of 14851 inhabitants on 1 June 2005.
Rijnsburg's main claim to fame is that the philosopher Spinoza lived there from 1661 to 1663. The modest house in which he lived is still preserved, and can be visited.
Rijnsburg is located in an area called the "Dune and Bulb Trek" (Duin- en Bollenstreek).
An Abbey (a convent) was established by Petronilla, consort of Floris II, Count of Holland, in 1133. It flourished for many years. Two of her granddaughters, Sophie and Hedwig, would later join this abbey, one of them as abbess.