|Blast furnace||Enabling iron to be produced on a larger scale than previously.|
|Finery forge||For converting pig iron (from the blast furnace) into bar iron (wrought iron)|
|Slitting mill||Mechanising the production of iron rods for nailmaking.|
|Smeltmill||More efficient for lead smelting than the bole hill.|
However, these designs were not always intended to be put into practice, and often practical limitations impeded the application of the revolutionary designs. For example, da Vinci's ideas on the conical parachute or the winged flying machine were only applied much later. While earlier scholars showed a tendency to attribute inventions based on their first pictorial appearance to individual Renaissance engineers, modern scholarship is more prone to view the devices as products of a technical evolution which often went back to the Middle Ages.
|Pile driver||1475||Francesco di Giorgio Martini||Trattato di Architectura||Drawing of such a device whose principle must be according to the Brazilian historian of technology Ladislao Reti "considered original with Franceso".|
|Centrifugal pump||1475||Francesco di Giorgio Martini||Trattato di Architectura||Water or mud-lifting machine "that must be characterized as the prototype of the centrifugal pump".|
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