Definitions

Reich

Reich

[rahyk; Ger. rahykh]
Reich, Robert Bernard, 1946-, American political economist, b. Scranton, Pa. He attended Dartmouth, Oxford (where he and Bill Clinton were Rhodes scholars), and Yale Law School. After graduation in 1973 he entered government service, becoming assistant solicitor general in the Dept. of Justice (1974-76) and director of policy planning in the Federal Trade Commission (1976-81). He taught at Harvard's Kennedy School of Government (1981-92) and was secretary of labor (1993-96) in the first Clinton administration. A neoliberal, Reich supported the development of high-tech industries, economic flexibility, labor-management cooperation, limited government intervention in labor disputes, and the education of a technologically adept workforce. In 1997, he joined the Brandeis Univ. faculty as a professor of social and economic policy; he is also a professor of public policy at the Univ. of California, Berkeley. His books include The Next American Frontier (1983), The Work of Nations (1991), the memoir Locked in the Cabinet (1997), Reason: Why Liberals Will Win the Battle for America (2004), and Supercapitalism: The Transformation of Business, Democracy, and Everyday Life (2007).
Reich, Steve (Stephen Michael Reich), 1936-, American composer, b. New York City. A well-known exponent of minimalism, he attended Cornell (B.A., 1957), the Julliard School of Music (1958-61), and Mills College (M.A., 1963), where he studied with Darius Milhaud and Luciano Berio. Also influenced by John Cage, he began to create experimental works in the 1960s, showing an interest in electronic and tape-recorded elements. By the late 1960s, he was composing works based on the almost hypnotic repetition of short modular units of minutely changing chords, tonal progressions, chiming timbres, and steady rhythms. He also founded his own ensemble in 1966. Having studied drumming in childhood, he has retained an interest in percussion and has incorporated such instruments as the Balinese gamelan and Ghanian tribal drums into his compositions. Voice is also an important component of many of his works. Critics have noted that over the years his works have become both more intimate, freer, and more expansive. Reich's compositions include the film score for Plastic Haircut (1963), Drumming (1971), Music for 18 Musicians (1974-76), Tehillim (1981), Different Trains (1988), City Life (1994), Proverb (1995), Triple Quartet (1999), Three Tales (2002), and Double Sextet (2006; Pulitzer Prize).
Reich, Wilhelm, 1897-1957, Austrian psychiatrist and biophysicist. For many years a chief associate at Freud's Psychoanalytic Polyclinic in Vienna, he later broke with Freud and the psychoanalytic movement. Forced to leave Nazi Germany, he resettled in New York City in 1939 to continue independent research in biophysics. He taught (1939-41) at the New School for Social Research, and in 1942 he founded the Orgone Institute. According to Reich's theories the universe is permeated by a primal, mass-free phenomenon that he called orgone energy; in the human organism the lack of repeated total discharge of this energy through natural sexual release is considered the genesis not only of all individual neurosis but also of irrational social movements and collective neurotic disorder. Reich invented the orgone box, a device that he claimed would restore energy but that was declared a fraud by the Food and Drug Administration. In 1956 he was tried for contempt of court and violation of the Food and Drug Act and sentenced to two years in a federal penitentiary, where he died.

See his selected writings (1960); his autobiography, ed. by M. B. Higgins and R. Chester (tr. 1988); studies by C. Rycroft (1972) and D. Boadella (1974); biographies by W. E. Man and E. Hoffman (1983) and M. Saraf (1984).

(born March 24, 1897, Dobrzcynica, Galicia, Austria-Hungary—died Nov. 3, 1957, Lewisburg, Pa., U.S.) Austrian-U.S. psychologist. Trained at the Berlin Psychoanalytic Institute, he joined the faculty of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Institute in 1924. In The Function of the Orgasm (1927), he argued that the failure to achieve orgasm could produce neurosis. An advocate of sexual education and freedom as well as of radical left-wing politics, he left Germany in 1933 and settled in the U.S. in 1939. After breaking with the psychoanalytic movement in 1934, he developed a pseudoscientific system called orgonomy. He conceived of mental illness and some physical illnesses as deficiency of cosmic energy (measured in units called “orgones”), which he treated by placing the patient in a cabinet with reflective inner surfaces known as the orgone box. Reich's views brought him into conflict with U.S. authorities in the early 1950s; he was convicted of contempt of court and died in prison.

Learn more about Reich, Wilhelm with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Stephen Michael Reich

(born Oct. 3, 1936, New York, N.Y., U.S.) U.S. composer. He majored in philosophy at Cornell University. After musical study with Darius Milhaud and Luciano Berio, he pursued interests in Balinese and African music, learning drumming in Ghana. His early music explored the process of simultaneous repeated patterns gradually slipping out of phase (“process music”). With Terry Riley (b. 1935) and Philip Glass, he was among the most prominent of the early “minimalists” of the 1970s. His early works include Drumming (1971) and Music for 18 Musicians (1976); later works such as The Desert Music (1983) and Different Trains (1988) show a considerably expanded compositional vocabulary.

Learn more about Reich, Steve with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born March 24, 1897, Dobrzcynica, Galicia, Austria-Hungary—died Nov. 3, 1957, Lewisburg, Pa., U.S.) Austrian-U.S. psychologist. Trained at the Berlin Psychoanalytic Institute, he joined the faculty of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Institute in 1924. In The Function of the Orgasm (1927), he argued that the failure to achieve orgasm could produce neurosis. An advocate of sexual education and freedom as well as of radical left-wing politics, he left Germany in 1933 and settled in the U.S. in 1939. After breaking with the psychoanalytic movement in 1934, he developed a pseudoscientific system called orgonomy. He conceived of mental illness and some physical illnesses as deficiency of cosmic energy (measured in units called “orgones”), which he treated by placing the patient in a cabinet with reflective inner surfaces known as the orgone box. Reich's views brought him into conflict with U.S. authorities in the early 1950s; he was convicted of contempt of court and died in prison.

Learn more about Reich, Wilhelm with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Stephen Michael Reich

(born Oct. 3, 1936, New York, N.Y., U.S.) U.S. composer. He majored in philosophy at Cornell University. After musical study with Darius Milhaud and Luciano Berio, he pursued interests in Balinese and African music, learning drumming in Ghana. His early music explored the process of simultaneous repeated patterns gradually slipping out of phase (“process music”). With Terry Riley (b. 1935) and Philip Glass, he was among the most prominent of the early “minimalists” of the 1970s. His early works include Drumming (1971) and Music for 18 Musicians (1976); later works such as The Desert Music (1983) and Different Trains (1988) show a considerably expanded compositional vocabulary.

Learn more about Reich, Steve with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(German ˈʁaɪç), is a German loanword cognate with the English reign, region, and rich, but used most to designate an empire, realm, or nation. The qualitative connotation from the German is "imperial, sovereign state." It is cognate with the Scandinavian rike/rige, rijk, raj, -ric; as found in bishopric. It is the word traditionally used for a variety of sovereign entities, including Germany in many periods of its history. It is also found in the compound Königreich, "kingdom" (Königtum), and in the country names Frankreich (France, lit. "the Realm of the Franks"), Österreich (Austria, the "Eastern Realm"), Sverige (Sweden, the "Realm of the Swedes") and in England as Surrey - Suthrige, 'southern realm'. The German version of the Lord's Prayer uses the words Dein Reich komme for "ἐλθέτω ἡ βασιλεία σου" (usually translated as "thy kingdom come" in English), and the Lord's Prayer in Scandinavian also uses the cognate word; so it is in Old English - 'Tobecyme thin rice'.

Used adjectivally, reich is the German word for "rich". Like its Latin counterpart, imperium, Reich does not necessarily connote a monarchy; the Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany continued to use the name Deutsches Reich.

Reich, German

The term Reich was part of the German names for Germany for much of its history. Reich was used by itself in the common German variant of the Holy Roman Empire, the "Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation" (Heiliges römisches Reich deutscher Nation). Der rîche was a title for the Emperor. However, it should be noted that Latin, not German, was the formal legal language of the medieval Empire, so English-speaking historians are more likely to use Latin imperium than German Reich as a term for this period of German history.

The unified Germany which arose under Chancellor Otto von Bismarck in 1871 was called in German Deutsches Reich. Deutsches Reich remained the official name of Germany until 1945, although these years saw three very different political systems more commonly referred to in English as: "the German Empire" (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (1919–1933; the term is a postwar coinage not used at the time), and Nazi Germany (the Third Reich) (1933–1945). After 1918 "Reich" was usually not translated as "Empire" in English-speaking countries, and the title was instead simply used in its original German. During the Weimar Republic the term "Reich" and the prefix "Reichs-" referred not to the idea of empire but rather to the institutions, officials, affairs etc. of the whole country as opposed to those of one of its constituent federal states. Das Reich meant the legal persona of the (federal) State, similar to The Crown designating the State (and its treasury) in Commonwealth countries. The Nazis sought to legitimize their power historiographically by portraying their rule as a continuation of a Germanic past. They coined the term Das Dritte Reich ("The Third Empire" – usually rendered in English in the partial-translation "The Third Reich"), counting the Holy Roman Empire as the first and the 1871-1918 monarchy as the second. During the Anschluss (annexation) of Austria in 1938 the Nazi propaganda also used the political slogan Ein Volk, ein Reich, ein Führer ("One people, one Reich, one leader"). Although the term "Third Reich" is in common use, the terms "First Reich" and "Second Reich" for the earlier periods are seldom found outside Nazi propaganda. To use the terms "First Reich" and "Second Reich", as some commentators did in the post-war years, is generally frowned upon as accepting Nazi historiography. The term Altes Reich ("old Reich"; cf. French ancien regime for monarchical France) is sometimes used to refer to the Holy Roman Empire.

A number of previously neutral words used by the Nazis have later taken on negative connotations in German (e.g. Führer or Heil); while in many contexts Reich is not one of them (reich, rich; Frankreich, France), it can imply German imperialism or strong nationalism if it is used to describe a political or governmental entity. Reich has thus not been used in official terminology since 1945, though it is still found in the name of the Reichstag building, which since 1999 has housed the German federal parliament, the Bundestag. The decision not to rename the Reichstag building was taken only after long debate in the Bundestag; even then, it is described officially as Reichstag - Sitz des Bundestages (Reichstag, seat of the Bundestag).

The exception is that during the Cold War, the East German railway incongruously continued to use the name Deutsche Reichsbahn (German National Railways), which had been the name of the national railway during the era of the Weimar Republic and Third Reich. This is because the Reichsbahn was specifically mentioned in several postwar treaties and directives regarding the right to operate the railroad in West Berlin; had the East German government changed the name of the railways to, for example, Staatsbahn der DDR (State Railways of the GDR), it would likely have lost this right. Even after German reunification in October 1990, the Reichsbahn continued to exist for over three years as the operator of the railroad in eastern Germany, ending finally on 1 January 1994 when the Reichsbahn and the western Deutsche Bundesbahn were merged to form the privatized Deutsche Bahn AG.

Rike, rige

Rike is the Swedish and Norwegian word for "realm", in Danish spelled rige, of similar meaning as German Reich. The word is traditionally used for sovereign entities; a country with a King or Queen as head of state, such as the United Kingdom or Sweden itself, is a (kunga)rike, literally a "royal realm".

The word is used in "Svea rike", with the current spelling Sverige, the name of Sweden in Swedish. The derived prefix "riks-" implies nationwide or under central jurisdiction such as in riksväg, the Swedish name for federal road. It is also present in the names of institutions such as the Riksdag, Sveriges Riksbank, Riksåklagaren, Rikspolisstyrelsen, Riksteatern, riksdaler, etc.

The Lord's Prayer uses the words in the Swedish version — Tillkomme ditt rike (Thy kingdom come).

Rijk

Rijk is the Dutch equivalent of German Reich. In a political sense in the Netherlands the word rijk often connotates a connection with the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the ministerraad is the executive body of the Netherlands' government and the rijksministerraad that of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, a similar distinction is found in wetten (laws) versus rijkswetten (kingdom laws). The word rijk can also be found in institutions like Rijkswaterstaat, Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu, and Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.

Like in German, the adjective rijk means "rich".

Etymology and cognates

Reich comes from a Germanic word for "king", which was borrowed from Celtic. (See Calvert Watkins, American Heritage dictionary of Indo-European Roots, p.70.) It has cognates in many other languages, all ultimately descended from the Proto-Indo-European root *reg-, meaning "to straighten out" or "rule", also the source of English right. The Sanskrit derived cognates in Hindi are "Raja" meaning King and also the name of an ethnic group: Rajput meaning progeny of Rajas. The cognates can be grouped linguistically as follows:

Celtic group

Proto-Celtic *rīg-, "king", from the lengthened e-grade (see: Indo-European ablaut).

  • Various Celtic words for "king" including Gaelic righ.
  • Borrowed into Germanic as *rīks-. Hence:

*Old High German: richi; Reich (all senses); Reichtum "riches"; but not the unrelated verb reichen, "to reach", or its derivative Bereich, "subject area, sphere".
*Old English: rīce; Modern English: rich.
*rijk
*rige (as in Rigsmal)
*Swedish and rike (as in Riksmål; Sverige, "Sweden").
*Old Norse and Icelandic: ríki (as in Garðaríki).
*Many Germanic names (personal names), including Friedrich, Dietrich and Richard.

  • Borrowed from Germanic:

*riche (borrowed from Germanic)
*Old Prussian: reiks (borrowed from Germanic)
*rico, "rich" (borrowed from Gothic)
*rikė
*Various Slavonic words borrowed from Germanic, all loaned from Old High German dialects and include Slavonic phonetic innovations (like the change from r into ř-sound and soft Germanic "ch" into Slavonic "š" (like the "sh" in "she"). The PIE root "*reg-" (rule) is non-existent in Slavonic. There is also no native Slavic root for "king" and "kingdom" or similar words, probably because the early Slavic societies were highly democratic and ruled by an ancient form of parliament "wiec". Hence, Slavonic words generally meaning "king" derive from the name of Charlemagne in Old French, "Karol". Similarly, the words that mean more or less the aristocratic title "prince" come from Gothic "kunings" (with many local phonetic changes, e.g. "knędz" in Old Polish, "książę" in Polish and "kniaz'" in Ruthenian).
*rzesza - nowadays often associated with "Trzecia Rzesza" (The Third Reich) in colloquial speech; second meaning: "a great group of people, throng, mob"
*říše
*ríša

Original Germanic group

Although the line of descent of Reich and its closest cognates came into Germanic sideways from Celtic, Germanic also inherited the same Indo-European root directly in a suffixed form of the e-grade, *reg-to-, hence:

Latin

The basic e-grade form of the root came into Latin as: regere (supine stem rectus), "to rule"; rex, regis, "king"; regalis, "kingly". A suffixed, lengthened e-grade form, *rēg-ola- gives us Latin regula, "rod". Hence:

  • roi "king", droit "law, right" and many others.
  • rey "king"
  • rei "king"
  • regieren "to govern, to rule", Regierung "government", Regel "law, rule"
  • English (straight from Latin): regent; regal; regulate; rector; rectangle; erect; (borrowed via French): royal, reign; viceroy; realm; ruler (both senses) and countless others.

Sanskrit

The Sanskrit word, from a lengthened-grade suffixed form *rēg-en-, is rājā, "king", hence the words for rulers in various Indian languages. Of interest to English speakers: Raj, used of the British rule in India; and Maharaja, literally "the great king" (exactly parallel to Latin magnus rex).

References

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