Definitions

Rehe

Rehe

Rehe or Jehol, former province (c.44,000 sq mi/114,000 sq km), NE China. Chengde was the capital. In 1955, Rehe was divided between the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region and the provinces of Hebei and Liaoning. The Zongling is one of the ranges of this largely hilly and mountainous region, which is crossed by swift, unnavigable rivers. Rehe was the traditional gateway to Mongolia and from time to time was overrun by Tatars, Huns, and Khitan Mongols. It was the seat (10th-12th cent.) of the Liao (Khitan) empire. Conquered by the Manchus in the 17th cent., Rehe became an imperial pastureland. It was taken by the Japanese early in 1933 and included in Manchukuo; it was not restored to China until the end of World War II. From 1945 to 1955 it retained its provincial status but was administered as part of Manchuria.
熱河省
Rehe Province
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Capital Chengde

Rehe also known as Jehol, is a defunct Chinese province .

Administration

Rehe was located north of the Great Wall, west of Manchuria, and east of Mongolia. The capital of Rehe was the city of Chengde. The second largest city in the province was Chaoyang, followed by Chifeng. The province covered an area of 114,000 square kilometers.

History

Once the seat of the Khitan Empire, Rehe was conquered by the Manchu in the 17th century and was reserved as imperial pastureland with settlement forbidden to Han Chinese in the early part of the Qing dynasty. While taking the attributes of Confucianism, Manchus preserved their tradition of movement between the Summer and Winter capitals. While the second was Beijing, Rehe kept the status of the first. North of Rehe, at Mulan, a huge hunting park had been created.

Over time, many Han Chinese settled in Rehe anyway. In the early Republic of China, the area was organized as the Rehe Special Autonomous Mongol Territory in 1914. It was declared the Province of Jehol of the Republic of China in 1923.

Jehol was seized by the Imperial Japanese Army to form a buffer zone between China proper and Japanese-controlled Manchukuo in Operation Nekka beginning on January 21, 1933. It was subsequently annexed to the Empire of Manchukuo, forming the anto (province) of Rehe.

The seizure of Jehol was one of the most important of many incidents in the 1930s that poisoned relations between Japan and China, leading to the Second Sino-Japanese War.

After the annexation of Manchukuo by the Republic of China after the end of World War II, the Kuomintang continued to recognize the area as a separate province, reverting its name to Jehol Province, with the capital in Hailar. However, under the administration of the People's Republic of China, in 1955, the area was divided between Hebei province, Liaoning Province and the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.

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