Raphael

Raphael

[raf-ee-uhl, rey-fee-, rah-fahy-el]
Sanzio, Raphael: see Raphael Santi.
Raphael, archangel. He is prominent in the book of Tobit, as the companion of Tobias, as the healer of Tobit, and as the rescuer of Sara from Asmodeus. Milton made him a featured character of Paradise Lost. Feast: Sept. 29 (jointly with the other archangels).
Holinshed, Raphael, d. c.1580, English chronicler. He was a translator who also assisted Reginald Wolfe in the preparation of a universal history, which was never finished. In 1577, four years after Wolfe's death, appeared Holinshed's Chronicles of England, Scotland, and Ireland, which he wrote with the assistance of William Harrison and Richard Stanihurst. Many Elizabethan dramatists drew plots for plays from the book in this and later editions. Shakespeare used it for several plays, especially Macbeth, King Lear, and Cymbeline.

See study by S. Booth (1968).

Semmes, Raphael, 1809-77, American naval officer, b. Charles co., Md. He took part in the Mexican War, practiced law at Mobile, Ala., and was in the Lighthouse Service from 1856 to Feb., 1861, when he resigned his commission as commander. He soon took the same rank in the Confederate navy. His first ship, the Sumter, did considerable damage to Northern commerce before she was bottled up at Gibraltar in Jan., 1862. In Aug., 1862, Semmes, now a captain, took command of the Alabama (see Confederate cruisers), and a two-year cruise made him the naval hero of the Confederacy. After the Alabama was sunk by the Kearsarge, Semmes returned to the South. He was promoted to rear admiral (Feb., 1865) and charged with the naval defense of Richmond.

See H. A. Gosnell, Rebel Raider (1948); C. G. Summersell, The Cruise of C.S.S. Sumter (1965).

(born Sept. 27, 1809, Charles county, Md., U.S.—died Aug. 30, 1877, Mobile, Ala.) U.S. naval officer. He joined the U.S. Navy in 1826, and in the Mexican War he commanded the naval landing at Veracruz. A resident of Alabama, he resigned his commission in 1861 and was appointed a commander in the Confederate navy. He captured 17 Union merchant ships before assuming command of the English-made Alabama in 1862. On numerous raids he captured, sank, or burned 82 Union ships, disrupting Union commerce. In 1864 he was defeated in a battle with the Union ship Kearsarge in the English Channel, but he escaped capture. After the war he practiced law. Seealso Alabama claims.

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(born June 20, 1808, Hamburg—died Dec. 31, 1888, Frankfurt-on-Main, Ger.) German Jewish scholar. He served as rabbi in Oldenburg, Emden, Nikolsburg, and Frankfurt am Main. In his Nineteen Letters of Ben Uziel (1836), he expounded his system of Neo-Orthodoxy, which helped make Orthodox Judaism viable in 19th-century Germany. He advocated blending strict schooling in the Torah with modern secular education, and he argued that Orthodox Jews should separate from the larger Jewish community in defense of their traditions. His many works include commentaries on the Pentateuch and an Orthodox textbook on Judaism.

Learn more about Hirsch, Samson Raphael with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Sept. 27, 1809, Charles county, Md., U.S.—died Aug. 30, 1877, Mobile, Ala.) U.S. naval officer. He joined the U.S. Navy in 1826, and in the Mexican War he commanded the naval landing at Veracruz. A resident of Alabama, he resigned his commission in 1861 and was appointed a commander in the Confederate navy. He captured 17 Union merchant ships before assuming command of the English-made Alabama in 1862. On numerous raids he captured, sank, or burned 82 Union ships, disrupting Union commerce. In 1864 he was defeated in a battle with the Union ship Kearsarge in the English Channel, but he escaped capture. After the war he practiced law. Seealso Alabama claims.

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(died circa 1580) English chronicler. From circa 1560 Holinshed lived in London, where he was employed as a translator by Reginald Wolfe, who was preparing a universal history. Holinshed is remembered for his Chronicles of England, Scotlande, and Irelande (1577), an abridged history he published after Wolfe's death, compiled largely uncritically from many sources of varying degrees of trustworthiness. It enjoyed great popularity and was quarried by Elizabethan dramatists, especially William Shakespeare, who drew on its second edition (1587) for Macbeth, King Lear, Cymbeline, and many of his historical plays.

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orig. Raffaello Sanzio

(born April 6, 1483, Urbino, Duchy of Urbino—died April 6, 1520, Rome, Papal States) Italian painter and architect. As a member of Perugino's workshop, he established his mastery by 17 and began receiving important commissions. In 1504 he moved to Florence, where he executed many of his famous Madonnas; his unity of composition and suppression of inessentials is evident in The Madonna of the Goldfinch (circa 1506). Though influenced by Leonardo da Vinci's chiaroscuro and sfumato, his figure types were his own creation, with round, gentle faces that reveal human sentiments raised to a sublime serenity. In 1508 he was summoned to Rome to decorate a suite of papal chambers in the Vatican. The frescoes in the Stanza della Segnatura are probably his greatest work; the most famous, The School of Athens (1510–11), is a complex and magnificently ordered allegory of secular knowledge showing Greek philosophers in an architectural setting. The Madonnas he painted in Rome show him turning away from his earlier work's serenity to emphasize movement and grandeur, partly under Michelangelo's High Renaissance influence. The Sistine Madonna (1513) shows the richness of colour and new boldness of compositional invention typical of his Roman period. He became the most important portraitist in Rome, designed 10 large tapestries to hang in the Sistine Chapel, designed a church and a chapel, assumed the direction of work on St. Peter's Basilica at the death of Donato Bramante, and took charge of virtually all the papacy's projects in architecture, painting, and the preservation of antiquities. When he died on his 37th birthday, his last masterpiece, the Transfiguration altarpiece, was placed at the head of his bier.

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(born March 22, 1728, Aussig, Bohemia—died June 29, 1779, Rome, Papal States) German painter. After study in Dresden and Rome, he became painter to the Saxon court in Dresden in 1745. Back in Rome in the late 1740s and again in the early 1750s, he developed an enthusiasm for Classical antiquity. His fresco Parnassus (1760–61) at the Villa Albani helped establish the ascendancy of Neoclassical painting. He also worked extensively for the Spanish court in Madrid. He was regarded as Europe's greatest living painter in his day, but his reputation has since declined.

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(died circa 1580) English chronicler. From circa 1560 Holinshed lived in London, where he was employed as a translator by Reginald Wolfe, who was preparing a universal history. Holinshed is remembered for his Chronicles of England, Scotlande, and Irelande (1577), an abridged history he published after Wolfe's death, compiled largely uncritically from many sources of varying degrees of trustworthiness. It enjoyed great popularity and was quarried by Elizabethan dramatists, especially William Shakespeare, who drew on its second edition (1587) for Macbeth, King Lear, Cymbeline, and many of his historical plays.

Learn more about Holinshed, Raphael with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born June 20, 1808, Hamburg—died Dec. 31, 1888, Frankfurt-on-Main, Ger.) German Jewish scholar. He served as rabbi in Oldenburg, Emden, Nikolsburg, and Frankfurt am Main. In his Nineteen Letters of Ben Uziel (1836), he expounded his system of Neo-Orthodoxy, which helped make Orthodox Judaism viable in 19th-century Germany. He advocated blending strict schooling in the Torah with modern secular education, and he argued that Orthodox Jews should separate from the larger Jewish community in defense of their traditions. His many works include commentaries on the Pentateuch and an Orthodox textbook on Judaism.

Learn more about Hirsch, Samson Raphael with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born March 22, 1728, Aussig, Bohemia—died June 29, 1779, Rome, Papal States) German painter. After study in Dresden and Rome, he became painter to the Saxon court in Dresden in 1745. Back in Rome in the late 1740s and again in the early 1750s, he developed an enthusiasm for Classical antiquity. His fresco Parnassus (1760–61) at the Villa Albani helped establish the ascendancy of Neoclassical painting. He also worked extensively for the Spanish court in Madrid. He was regarded as Europe's greatest living painter in his day, but his reputation has since declined.

Learn more about Mengs, Anton Raphael with a free trial on Britannica.com.

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