Another Georgia county, Jasper, was the original Randolph county in Georgia; however, because of John Randolph's opposition to U.S. entry into the War of 1812, the Georgia General Assembly changed its name in an act of December 10th, 1812. Eventually, John Randolph's reputation was restored, and in 1828, the General Assembly created the current Randolph County.
There were 2,909 households out of which 30.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.90% were married couples living together, 22.60% had a female householder with no husband present, and 32.20% were non-families. 30.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.80% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.20.
In the county the population was spread out with 27.30% under the age of 18, 11.00% from 18 to 24, 24.20% from 25 to 44, 21.90% from 45 to 64, and 15.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 85.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 78.10 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $22,004, and the median income for a family was $30,278. Males had a median income of $27,033 versus $20,394 for females. The per capita income for the county was $11,809. About 22.00% of families and 27.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 36.20% of those under age 18 and 31.00% of those age 65 or over.