Quezon City (Filipino: Lungsod Quezon), is the former capital (1948-1976) and the most populous city in the Philippines. Located on the island of Luzon, Quezon City (popularly known to Filipinos as simply QC) is one of the cities and municipalities that make up Metro Manila, the National Capital Region. The city was named after Manuel L. Quezon, the former president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines who founded the city and developed it to replace Manila as the country's capital. Quezon City is not located in and should not be confused with Quezon province, which was also named after the president.
Having been the former capital, many government offices are located in the city, including the Batasang Pambansa, the seat of the House of Representatives, which is the lower chamber in the Philippine Congress. The main campuses of two noteworthy universities, the Ateneo de Manila University and the country's National University--the University of the Philippines, Diliman-- are located in the city.
Quezon City is bordered by Manila to the southwest, by Caloocan City and Valenzuela City to the west and northwest. To the south lies San Juan and Mandaluyong City while Marikina City and Pasig City borders Quezon City to the southeast. To the north across Marilao River lies San Jose del Monte City in the province of Bulacan and to the east lies Rodriguez and San Mateo, both in the province of Rizal.
The city can be divided into a number of areas. The southern portion of the city is divided into a number of places including Diliman, Commonwealth, the Project areas, Cubao, Kamias, Kamuning, New Manila, San Francisco del Monte and Sta. Mesa Heights. The northern half of the city is often called Novaliches and contains the areas of Fairview and Lagro. Most of these areas have no defined boundaries and are primarily residential in nature.
Diliman, located at the center of southern Quezon City, is where many government offices are located, including the City Hall. Diliman is also home to the main campus of the University of the Philippines. Far Eastern University's Institute of Technology (now FEU-FERN College) 15-hectare campus is located at the central portion of Diliman.
At Diliman's center lies the Quezon Memorial where the late President Manuel L. Quezon is interred. The monument, encased in marble, is the highest structure in that part of the city. Running around the monument is the two-kilometer Quezon Memorial Circle, also known as the Elliptical Road (R-7/C-5). The circle links Commonwealth (R-7/C-5), Visayas, Kalayaan, East, North(C-5), and Quezon Avenues (R-7). The last three avenues provide access to Epifanio de los Santos Avenue (EDSA) (C-4), the main highway in Metro Manila.
The Quezon City Hall, one of the highest city halls in the country is located along the Circle. Surrounding the city hall are spacious parks and open areas. Some of the national government agencies whose head offices are located in Diliman are the Bureau of Internal Revenue (BIR), Social Security Systems (SSS), the National Power Corporation, the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philvolcs), the National Computer Center (NCC), the Office of the Ombudsman, the Departments of Agriculture (DA), Agrarian Reform (DAR), and the Environment and Natural Resources (DENR).
Surrounding the Circle are many important health centers and institutions. Along East Avenue stands the Philippine Heart Center, the East Avenue Medical Center (EAMC), the National Kidney and Transplant Institute, and the Philippine Mental Health Association. Along North Avenue is the Veteran's Memorial Medical Center (VMMC) and the Philippine Health Association. The Philippine Children's Medical Center and Lung Center of the Philippines is located along Quezon Avenue (R-7).
The University of the Philippines, Diliman (UPD) lies at the northwestern portion of Diliman occupying 4.92 km² of rolling land . Other schools are also located in the Diliman area, such as the main campus of the Philippine Science High School system .
Most of the rest of the area is residential. Some villages in this portion of Diliman are Teachers Village, U.P. Village, and Sikatuna Village. Those closer to the University of the Philippines campus such as Teachers Village and U.P. Village remain mostly residential although there are two major secondary schools in the area namely Claret School of Quezon City and Holy Family School, and many have converted spare rooms to boarding facilities for out-of-town students attending schools in the area: U.P., Ateneo, and Miriam College. The eastern edge of the Diliman area is roughly bounded by Katipunan Road which passes in front of Ateneo and Miriam and runs behind the U.P Diliman campus.
At the heart of Commonwealth is the Batasang Pambansa (literally, National Lawmaking Center), which is where the country's House of Representatives holds its sessions. Many congressmen stay in houses in the surrounding subdivisions.
South of Commonwealth and east of Diliman is Balara. The area of Balara along Tandang Sora Avenue is relatively poor, while the outlying areas contain some of the richest subdivisions in the city. Capitol Hills Subdivision, Ayala Heights, and Ayala Hillside Estates are affluent communities. Adjacent to Ayala Heights and Ayala Hillside Estates is the Capitol Hills Golf and Country Club, a popular golf course.
Loyola Heights also has numerous study centers such as: The Loyola Heights-Xavierville Kumon Center, Newton Study Center, MSA, and others.
Loyola Heights is an upper middle-class and rich residential area that caters to students of the Ateneo de Manila, University of the Philippines, and Miriam College, members of the schools' faculty and staff, and their families. La Vista Subdivision, north of the Ateneo, is an upscale gated community where some of the country's top politicians own residences, including Pres. Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, as well as many of the country's moneyed elite. Accessed through La Vista is Loyola Grand Villas, another upscale gated community. Across Katipunan, the main thoroughfare of the area, are Varsity Hills and Xavierville, both upper middle-class subdivisions. Near these areas, and right beside La Vista, are some squatters' settlements, making the Loyola Heights area a place of mixed socio-economic classes.
Cubao, south of Diliman is an important commercial area. At its heart is the Araneta Center, along EDSA (C-4) and Aurora Boulevard (R-6). It is a 35-hectare commercial estate owned and developed by the Araneta family. The Center houses a number of shopping malls often compared to Madison Square in New York. One such mall is the Ali Mall (named after the boxing legend Muhammad Ali), then also The Farmers Plaza, and the modern Gateway Mall. Department stores and retail centers can also be found here, such as Plaza Fair, Rustan's, Shopwise Supercenter, and Makro. At the center is Araneta Coliseum, often called the Big Dome. Many musical concerts, ice shows, circus shows, religious crusades, wrestling, cock-fighting and basketball games are held in this 50,000-capacity coliseum. Seedy nightclubs also abound within the Cubao area.
There are residential areas ranging from the upper-middle class, right through to the upper-upper class, in Cubao Quezon City.
North from Araneta Center along EDSA (C-4) are numerous bus terminals, a place where one can take a bus ride to almost any point in Luzon as well as in the Visayas especially in Samar, Leyte, and Iloilo. It is also an intersection point for two of city's commuter trains (The EDSA MRT which travels from North to South, and the LRT-2 which runs from East to West).
Located at the southeastern corner of Quezon City, Bagumbayan or now called Libis is one of the newly developed commercial areas in Quezon City. The Eastwood City Business Center is situated here. It consists of several office and residential skyscrapers, including many local IT and consumer electronic firms. Numerous bars and restaurants have been put up since 2000 along E. Rodriguez Jr. Avenue (C-5). Many of which are open-air restaurants and coffee shops reminiscent of Paris boulevards, but with a modern architecture. With this, Libis is fast becoming one of the hippest areas for night entertainment, similar to the Malate and Ermita districts of Manila.
West of Bagumbayan are many high-end gated communities like the Acropolis, Blue Ridge, Greenmeadows, White Plains, Corinthian Hills, and Corinthian Gardens. Further west are Camp Aguinaldo and Camp Crame. Camp Aguinaldo is the headquarters of the Armed Forces of the Philippines while Camp Crame is the headquarters of the Philippine National Police.
Located in Greenmeadows is the Manila Philippines Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (the Mormons or LDS). The Manila Philippines Temple was dedicated on September 25, 1984.
In the South Triangle (the area bounded by Quezon Avenue (R-7), Timog Avenue (South Avenue) and EDSA) are located the head office of ABS-CBN and GMA Network, the top TV media companies in the country. Most Filipino entertainment shows are produced here, and it is also home to many Filipino celebrities.
Several of the streets in the surrounding area were named in honor of the 22 Boy Scouts who died in a plane crash en route to joining the 11th World Scout Jamboree. A memorial stands in the center of a rotunda at the intersection of Timog and Tomas Morato avenues. Because of this, Timog area is also often called Scout Area. In fact, one of the barangays (small local government unit) in the area is called Laging Handa (always ready), the motto of the (Boy Scouts of the Philippines). Near the scouting memorial is the location of the former Ozone disco, site of the worst fire in Philippine history.
The name Novaliches probably came from the surname of a Spanish governor general, Marquis de Novaliches. The town was once part of Rizal province before being ceded to Quezon City in the 1940s. This district is among the largest in the city, having shared boundaries with the two sections of Caloocan City, Valenzuela City, San Jose del Monte City in Bulacan and Montalban, Rizal. The oldest part of the city is in the town center, aptly named Novaliches Bayan. But because of population growth the density of people gradually widened reaching up the edge of the La Mesa Reservoir (Lagro and Fairview).
In 1999, a plebiscite was held among the voters of Quezon City to determine the cityhood of Novaliches. The proposed creation of "Novaliches City" would have resulted in the secession of 15 barangays from Quezon City. At the plebiscite's end, votes that were against the separation heavily outnumbered those that were in favor.
New Manila is located on west central portion of the city. This is a largely residential district that was named after Quezon City's southwest neighboring city Manila, where its first residents came from after the Metro Manila began. Located here are Broadway Centrum where the first GMA Network entertainment shows are doing but only a few shows are done, St. Paul's College, and St. Luke's Medical Hospital. Aside from Aurora Boulevard, the main street located here is Gilmore Avenue which is the access to Greenhills and Ortigas Center via Ortigas Avenue
It was an independent town during the Spanish era that had an area of of land filled with wildlife and trees. It was later absorbed by Quezon City when it was created. Today, it is a heavily populated district. Although it contains many residential areas such as Barangay San Antonio, there are many industrial facilities here, mostly found along Judge Juan Luna street. The two main intersections of this area are Roosevelt Ave. and Del Monte Ave.
When it was first founded, it was around 2.5 km² in area. It reached out to what is currently Project 7 and 8 and all the way out to Timog Ave area. Currently, it is composed of Brgy. Paraiso, Paltok, Masambong, Damayan and Del Monte.
The commercial center of the city is in Cubao where many shopping malls and the Aurora Tower can be found. There is a farmers plaza and farmers market. Fiesta Carnival is an enclosed amusement park cum carnival which is located in the heart of the Cubao Commercial Center. You will also find the Araneta Coliseum, a venue for concerts as well as sports events.
Quezon City also has a vibrant nightlife. Tomas Morato Avenue is known as restaurant row where restaurants range from fine dining to fast food. Bars and cafes also line up Tomas Morato. West Avenue also has its own version of restaurant row, but the difference is that West Avenue restaurants come in clusters, while Tomas Morato has restaurants in nearly the entire stretch.
For the more adventurous, Quezon Avenue, Timog (South) Avenue and West Avenue with nightclubs and other drinking joints, have a lot to offer. Birds International, the largest captive bird breeding facility in the world also regarded by many to be the best, is also near the city having been established by Antonio de Dios in 1975.
The city has several major educational institutions. Two of the most well-known are the Ateneo de Manila University and the University of the Philippines, Diliman. Also in Quezon City are medical schools such as the Far Eastern University - Nicanor Reyes Educational Foundation, Our Lady of Fatima University - Fatima Medical Science Foundation and the University of the East - Ramon Magsaysay Memorial Medical Center. The Polytechnic University of the Philippines also has an extension campus in Commonwealth area. Business and management schools include Entrepreneurs School Of Asia located in Libis, National College for Business and Arts (NCBA). Popular women's colleges such as Miriam College are also found in the city. Sectarian schools such as Colegio de San Lorenzo and New Era University are also found in the city. Philippine School of Business Administration (PSBA) and Trinity University of Asia are also found in the city. Notable secondary public schools include Philippine Science High School, Quezon City Science High School, Quezon City High School and the University of the Philippines Integrated School (UPIS). Quezon City also holds the largest number of private elementary and secondary schools in Metro Manila.
An elevated rail transit system (MRT-4) that was supposed to follow the general alignment of Quezon and Commonwealth Avenues (R-7) was shelved. In its place, a 22 kilometer rail system will be built. The MRT-7 project will commence at North Avenue, connecting the MRT-3 at its northern terminus. It will then go through Commonwealth Avenue, then through Regalado, Quirino Highway, ending in San Jose del Monte, Bulacan. The system has a proposed spur line to connect itself to MRT-2 in Katipunan, passing through the University of the Philippines Diliman and Katipunan Avenue.
Public transportation within the city, like in most of the urban areas in the Philippines, is facilitated mostly using inexpensive jeepneys and buses. Tricycles give access to more secluded areas, while taxi cabs are available to navigate any course.
Like other cities in the Philippines, Quezon City is governed by a mayor and vice mayor elected to three-year terms. The mayor is the executive head and leads the city's departments in executing the city ordinances and improving public services. The vice mayor heads a legislative council consisting of 10 members. The council is in charge of creating the city's policies.
Quezon City, being a part of the Metro Manila region, has its mayor in the Metro Manila Council headed by the Metro Manila Development Authority (MMDA). This council formulates development plans that seeks to solve the problems and improve the conditions in the metropolis.
Quezon City is divided into 142 barangays (the smallest local government units) which handle governance in a much smaller area. These barangays are grouped into four congressional districts where each district is represented by a congressman in the country's House of Representatives.
Before Quezon City was created, it was composed of small towns. These were San Francisco del Monte, Novaliches, and Balintawak. In August 23, 1896, the Katipunan led by Andres Bonifacio declared a revolution against Spain in the house of Melchora Aquino in Pugad Lawin (now known as Bahay Toro, Project 8).
In the early 1900s, President Manuel L. Quezon dreamt of a city that would become the future capital of the country, replacing Manila. In 1938, President Quezon created People's Homesite Corporation and purchased 15.29 km² from the vast Diliman estate of the Tuason family. The National Assembly of the Philippine Commonwealth passed Commonwealth Act 502 known as the “Charter of Quezon City” originally proposed as Balintawak City, Assemblymen Narciso Ramos (father of President Fidel V. Ramos) and Ramon Mitra, Sr. (father of Speaker Ramon Mitra, Jr.) successfully lobbied the assembly to name the city after the incumbent president. President Quezon allowed the bill to lapse into law without his signature on October 12, 1939, thus establishing Quezon City.
After the war, Republic Act No. 333 was signed by Elpidio Quirino on July 17, 1948 declaring Quezon City to be the republic's capital. On June 16, 1950, the City Charter was revised by Republic Act No. 537, extending the city's boundaries to its present area of 153.59 km². Baesa, Talipapa, San Bartolome, Pasong Tamo, Novaliches Poblacion, Banlat, Kabuyao, Pugad Lawin, Bagbag, Pasong Putik of the old Novaliches municipality ceded to Quezon City. The rest of the municipality was ceded to Caloocan thus becoming North Caloocan.
On November 7, 1975 the promulgation of Presidential Decree No. 824 of President Ferdinand Marcos established Metro Manila. Quezon City became one of Metro Manila's 17 cities and municipalities. The next year, Presidential Decree No. 940 transferred the capital back to Manila on June 24, 1976.
On March 31, 1978, President Ferdinand Marcos ordered the transfer of the remains of President Manuel L. Quezon from the Manila North Cemetery to the erected Quezon Memorial Monument within the Quezon Elliptical Road.
On February 23, 1998, Republic Act. No. 8535 was signed by President Fidel V. Ramos. The Act provided for the creation of the City of Novaliches comprising the 15 northernmost barangays of Quezon City. However, in the succeeding plebiscite on October 23, 1999, an overwhelming majority of Quezon City residents rejected the secession of Novaliches.
Quezon City is the first local government in the Philippines with a computerized real estate assessment and payment system. The City government developed a database system that now contains around 400,000 property units with capability to record payments.
President Manuel L. Quezon acted as mayor from October 12 to November 4, 1939, pending the resignation from another position of his intended appointee, Tomas B. Morato. Since a president can, under Philippine law, hold multiple portfolios inferior to the position of president, Quezon took the position of mayor in a concurrent capacity. However, it is erroneous to view him as the first mayor, as a president holding a concurrent position is not listed in the roster of incumbents for those offices.
|Mayor||Starting Date||Ending Date||Vice-Mayor|
|Tomas B. Morato||Nov 5, 1939||Dec 1942||unknown|
|Ponciano A. Bernardo||Jan 1, 1947||April 29, 1949|
|Nicanor A. Roxas||May 4, 1949||Jan 6, 1950|
|Ignacio Santos Diaz||Jan 6, 1950||Dec 30, 1953|
|Norberto S. Amoranto||Jan 1, 1954||Mar 31, 1976|
|Adelina S. Rodriguez||Apr 1, 1976||Apr 13, 1986||Ismael A. Mathay Jr.|
|Brigido R. Simon, Jr.||Apr 20, 1986||June 30, 1992||Vicente Sotto III (1988-92)|
|Ismael A. Mathay, Jr.||June 30, 1992||June 30, 2001||Charito Planas (1992-95)|
|Herbert Bautista (1995-98)|
|Connie Angeles (1998-2001)|
|Feliciano R. Belmonte, Jr.||June 30, 2001||present||Herbert Bautista (2001-present)|