(also spelled progestogens
) are hormones
that produce effects similar to those of progesterone
, the only natural progestagen. All other progestogens are synthetic
and are often referred to as progestins
All progestagens have antiestrogenic (counteracting the effects of estrogens on the body) and antigonadotropic (inhibiting the production of sex steroids by gonads) properties.
Progestogens differ in their potency (affinity for progesterone receptors) and side-effects. Such side-effects may be androgenic (medroxyprogesterone and most C19 progestagens), antiandrogenic (cyproterone acetate), estrogenic, glucocorticoid (some C21 progestogens), or antimineralocorticoid (progesterone).
Progestinic compounds decrease luteinizing hormone
(LH) levels and as such, will have antiandrogenic
properties in trans-women
and cisgender males
alike, due to decreased LH stimulation of the testes
is a common example of a progestinic medication, and is an effective antiandrogen
, which has the added benefit of blocking androgen receptors
in addition to the progestinic feedback to decrease LH levels.
Progestogen withdrawal bleeding
In a normal menstrual cycle
, a sudden drop in progesterone levels triggers menstruation. Norethindrone acetate
(brand name Aygestin) and medroxyprogesterone acetate
(brand name Provera) may be used to artificially induce progestogen withdrawal bleeding.
References / Citations