Planorbidae, or ram's-horn shells, is a family of freshwater gastropods.
, 1773 is the type genus
of this family.
Taxonomy and systematics
Much confusion has existed about the hierarchy and the position of the mentioned planorbid genera
. Several taxa
that are considered to be a genus on this page are considered elsewhere to be a subgenus
, whereas the reverse may also occur. For several taxa even no consensus exists for the assignment to the Planorbidae family
. This is for instance the case with Ferrissia
. Both may also be found assigned to the Lymnaeidae
family or even raised to family level each.
Regarding the taxonomy
, and nomenclature
of the Planorbidae for Europe the work of CLECOM
should be decisive. If CLECOM isn't helpful, other sources come into consideration. Although reference can be made to taxonomical databases on the internet (NCBI and Taxonomicon) it should be emphasized that these are incomplete and contain errors (also in the present family) that becomes apparent when the same taxon appears in various genera.
According to the new Taxonomy of the Gastropoda (Bouchet & Rocroi, 2005) this family consists of the following subfamiliers :
- subfamily Bulininae P. Fischer & Crosse, 1880
- tribe Bulinini P. Fischer & Crosse, 1880
- tribe Coretini Gray, 1847
- tribe Miratestini P.1F. Sarasin, 1897
- tribe Plesiophysini Bequaert & Clench, 1939
- subfamily Neoplanorbinae Hannibal, 1912
- subfamily Planorbinae Rafinesque, 1815
- tribe Ancylini Rafinesque, 1815
- tribe Biomphalaeiini H. Watson, 1954
- tribe Planorbini Rafinesque, 1815
- tribe Planorbulini Pilsbry, 1934
- tribe Segmentinini F.C. Baker, 1945
- subfamily Rhodacmeinae Walker, 1917
- Acrorbis Odhner, 1937
- Afrogyrus Brown & Mandahl-Barth, 1973
- Afroplanorbis Thiele, 1931
- Amerianna Strand, 1928
- Amphigyra Pilsbry, 1906
- Anisopsis Sandberger, 1875
- Anisus S. Studer, 1820
- Antillorbis Harry & Hubendick, 1964
- Armigerus Clessin, 1884
- Australorbis Pilsbry, 1934
- Bathyomphalus Charpentier, 1837
- Bayardella Burch, 1977
- Berellaia Laubrière & Carez, 1880
- Biomphalaria Preston, 1910
- Bulinus Müller, 1774
- Camptoceras Benson, 1843
- Camptoceratops Wenz, 1923
- Carinifex W.G. Binney, 1865
- Carinogyraulis Polinski, 1929
- Ceratophallus Cope, 1893
- Choanomphalus Gerstfeldt, 1859
- Drepanotrema Crosse & Fischer, 1880
- Ferrissia Walker, 1903
- Fossulorbis Pilsbry, 1934
- Glyptophysa Crosse, 1872
- Gyraulus Charpentier, 1837
- Helicorbis Benson, 1855
- Helisoma Swainson, 1840
- Hippeutis Charpentier, 1837
- Indoplanorbis Annandale & Prashad, 1920
- Intha Annandale, 1922
- Isidorella Tate, 1896
- Kessneria Walker & Ponder, 2001
- Leichhardtia Walker, 1988
- Lentorbis Mandahl-Barth, 1994
- Macrophysa (Meek) Dall, 1870
- Menetus H. & A. Adams, 1855
- Miratesta P. & F. Sarasin, 1897
- Paraplanorbis Hanna, 1922
- Patelloplanorbis Hubendick, 1957
- Pecosorbis D.W. Taylor, 1985
- Pentagoniostoma Branson, 1935
- Perrinilla Hannibal, 1912
- Physastra Tapparone-Canefri, 1883
- Physopsis Krauss, 1848
- Pingiella F.C. Baker, 1945
- Pitharella F. Edwards, 1860
- Planorbarius Duméril, 1806
- Planorbella Haldeman, 1842
- Planorbifex Pilsbry, 1935
- Planorbina Haldeman, 1842
- Planorbis Müller, 1773
- Planorbula Haldeman, 1840
- Platyphysa P. Fischer, 1883
- Platytaphius Pilsbry, 1924
- Plesiophysa P. Fischer, 1883
- Polypylis Pilsbry, 1906
- Promenetus F.C. Baker, 1935
- Protancylus P. & F. Sarasin, 1897
- Pygmanisus Iredale, 1943
- Segmentina Fleming, 1817
- Segmentorbis Mandahl-Barth, 1954
- Syrioplanorbis F.C. Baker, 1945
- Taphius H. & A. Adams, 1855
- Trochorbis Benson, 1855
- Vorticifex Meek in Dall, 1870
The genus Camptoceratops Wenz, 1923 is not a planorbid. It was recognised by Curry (1965, p. 360) as a euthecosomatous pteropod (Heterobranchia)
(note by Arie W. Janssen, 092507)
of most species show a disk-like shell that is coiled in one plane. Several groups are higher spired and these are sinistral
. As a matter of fact all Planorbidae are sinistral. This is shown by their anatomy. Formerly this was not known and species of this family, therefore, have often been figured with 'dextral
' shells. Nowadays the rule still is to figure disk-like Planorbidae in this way.
Most species have a rather thin and moderately smooth shell, although more distinct sculptures such as keels occur as well.
The aperture has a sharp outer lip. A peristome can be present but often the lip is not thickened nor reflected. Species possessing a high spired shell may have a narrow umbilicus but mostly this is covered by callus.
In height most species vary between 6 mm and 6 cm, however, disk-like shells mostly remain less than about 2 cm.
Ramshorn shells do not have an operculum to close their aperture.
Contrary to most other molluscs the blood of ram's-horn snails contains hemoglobine
As a result these animals are able to breath oxygen
more efficiently than other molluscs. The presence of this substance gives the body a reddish colour. This is especially apparent in albino
Most species thrive in fresh water, and a minority of the species are able to survive in brackish water.
Ancestors of ram's-horn snails are known with certainty since the Jurassic
era. Modern taxa developed since the Cretaceous
Occurrence in Northwest Europe
In Northwest Europe about 20 species are known (including non-indigenous species). In this region extinct taxa are known as well since the Jurassic
- Gittenberger, E., Janssen, A.W., Kuijper, W.J., Kuiper, J.G.J., Meijer, T., Velde, G. van der & Vries, J.N. de (1998) De Nederlandse zoetwatermollusken. Recente en fossiele weekdieren uit zoet en brak water Nederlandse Fauna 2. Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum Naturalis, KNNV Uitgeverij & EIS-Nederland, Leiden, 288 pp.
- Fischer, P.H. (1880-1887) Manuel de Conchyliologie et de Paléontologie conchyliologique ou histoire naturelle des Mollusques vivants et fossiles suivi d'un appendice sur les Brachiopodes par D. Oehlert. – XXIV + 1369 pp.
- (German) Thiele, J. (1929-1935) Handbuch der Systematischen Weichtierkunde. Jena, (1), 1-376, 1929; (2), 377-778, 1931; 779-1022, 1934; 1023-1134, 1935.
- Vaught, K.C. (1989) A classification of living mollusca. American Malacologists Inc., Melbourne USA, ISBN 0-915826-22-4 & 0-915826-22-6, 195 pp.
- (German) Wenz, W. (1923-1930) Gastropoda extramarina tertiaria. Fossilium Catalogus I. (4 vols.), 3387 pp.
- (German) Zilch, A. (1959-1960) Euthyneura. In: H. Schindewolf (ed.), Handbuch der Paläozoologie, 6(2): pp. I-XII + 1-834.