leaf), also cystosarcoma phyllodes
, cystosarcoma phylloides
and phylloides tumor
, are typically large, fast growing masses that form from the periductal stroma
of the breast
. They account for less than 1% of all breast neoplasms
Phyllodes tumors are a fibroepithelial tumor
composed of an epithelial and a cellular stromal component. They may be considered benign
, borderline, or malignant
depending on histologic features including stromal cellularity, infiltration at the tumor's edge, and mitotic activity
. All forms of phyllodes tumors are considered breast cancer, as even the benign form is regarded as having malignant potential.
They are classified as a fibroepithelial tumor by ICD-O, but not by MeSH.
This is predominantly a tumor of adult women, with very few examples reported in adolescents.
Patients typically present with a firm, palpable mass. These tumors are very fast growing, and can increase in size in just a few weeks. Occurrence is most common between the ages of 40 and 50, prior to the menopause
. This is about 15 years older than the typical age of patients with fibroadenoma
, a condition with which Phyllodes tumors may be confused.
The common treatment for phyllodes is wide local excision
. Other than surgery, there is no cure for phyllodes, as chemotherapy & radiation therapy are not effective. The risk of developing local recurrence or metastases
is related to the histologic grade, according to the above-named features.
One study has suggested that total mastectomy is more effective than breast-conserving surgery.
Phyllodes tumors are considered to be on a spectrum
of disease that consists of fibroadenoma
, fibroadenoma variant and benign phyllodes. Some would extend the spectrum to include malignant phyllodes tumors and frank sarcoma