Formulation terminology follows a 2-letter convention: (e.g. GR: granules) listed by CropLife International (formerly GIFAP then GCPF) in the Catalogue of Pesticide Formulation Types (Monograph 2); see: download page Some manufacturers do not follow these industry standards, which can cause confusion for users.
Newer, non-powdery formulations with reduced or no use of hazardous solvents and improved stability include:
Other common formulations include granules (GR) and dusts (DP), although for improved safety the latter have been replaced by microgranules (MG e.g. for rice farmers in Japan). Specialist formulations are available for ultra-low volume spraying, fogging, fumigation, etc. Very occasionally, some pesticides (e.g. malathion) may be sold as technical material (TC - which is mostly AI, but also contains small quantities of, usually non-active, by-products of the manufacturing process).
A particularly efficient form of pesticide dose transfer is seed treatment and specific formulations have been developed for this purpose. A number of pesticide bait formulations are available for rodent pest control, etc.
The major groups of pesticide formulations can be illustrated as follows: