territory has been inhabited for about 14,000 years by hunters and gatherers
. Subsequent developments include the appearance of sedentary communities and the emergence of socio-political hierarchies.
Andean cultural formations
- According to some, lithics found in the caves of Piquimachay (Ayacucho), Chivateros, Lauricocha, Paijan, and Toquepala provide the evidence for the date.
- The oldest securely dated remains appear in 10000 BC in the Guitarrero Cave, Yungay, then in the coast (in the provinces of Chilca and Paracas) and in the highlands (in the Callejón de Huaylas).
- 3000 years later, people became sedentary (Jiskairumoko, Kotosh, Huaca Prieta) so they began to cultivate plants like maize and cotton (Gossypium barbadense) and herd newly domesticated animals. Subsequent technical developments include innovations in spinning and knitting of cotton and wool. There is also evidence for some basketry and the first potteries during this period.
- Norte Chico civilization (Also known as the Caral-Supe civilization, nearly from 3,500 B.C.E to 1,800 B.C.E)"
These cultures developed advanced techniques of cultivation, gold and silver work, pottery, metallurgy and weaving. Some of the social structures that later (around the 12th century C.E) formed the base of the Inca Empire may be traced back to these previous periods.
Ancient Cultures in Peruvian History Time Line