Transportation or penal transportation refers to the deporting of convicted criminals to a penal colony, for example by France to Devil's Island and by the United Kingdom (then including Ireland) to its colonies in the Americas, from the 1610s through the American Revolution in the 1770s, and Australia between 1788 and 1868.
A convict who had served part of his time might apply for a ticket of leave permitting some prescribed freedoms. This enabled some convicts to resume a more normal life, to marry and raise a family, and a few to develop the colonies while removing them from the society. Exile was an essential component and thought a major deterrent. Transportation was also seen as a humane and productive alternative to execution, which would most likely have been the sentence to many if transportation had not been introduced.
North America was used for transportation from the early 17th century to the American Revolution of 1776. In the 17th century, it was done at the expense of the convicts or the shipowners. The first Transportation Act in 1718 allowed courts to sentence convicts to seven years' transportation to America. In 1720, extension authorized payments by the state to merchants contracted to take the convicts to America. Under the Transportation Act, returning from transportation was a capital offence.
The gaols became overcrowded and dilapidated ships were brought into service, the 'hulks' moored in various ports as floating gaols. The number of convicts transported to North America is not verified although it has been estimated to be 50,000 by Dr John Dunmore Lang. These went originally to New England, the majority prisoners taken in battle from Ireland and Scotland. Some were sold as slaves to the Southern states.
From the 1620s until the American Revolution, the British colonies in North America received transported British criminals, effectively double the period that Australian colonies received convicts. The American Revolutionary War brought that to an end and, with the remaining British colonies in what is now Canada close to the new United States of America, sending people there who might become hostile to British authorities was not an option. Thus, the British Government was forced to look elsewhere.
Transportation from Britain ended in 1868 although it had become unusual several years earlier.