Pelagonia (Greek: Πελαγονíα, Pelagonía, Macedonian: Пелагонија, Pelagonija, Albanian: Pellgania, or Pellgazia) was an ancient region of Europe later incorporated into Macedon. It was roughly bounded by Dardania to the far north, Illyria to the west and north, Paionia to the east, and Lynkestis to the south and west. The region was inhabited by Thraco-Illyrians, Pelagones, Paionians , and later settled by the ancient Macedonians. Strabo (7.327) calls Pelagonia Tripolitis, referring to the three major cities of ancient Pelagonia.

Today, Pelagonia is a plain shared between the Republic of Macedonia and Greece. It incorporates the southern towns of Bitola and Prilep in the Republic of Macedonia and the northwestern Greek Macedonian city Florina in Greece; it is also the location of the lower key border crossing between the two countries Medžitlija-Niki. Also, this area was the place where the famous Battle of Pelagonia was fought between the Byzantines and the Latins.

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