Claims arose that the result of the experiment had been falsified. The most notable of these claims was made by Dr. G. K. Noble, Curator of Reptiles at the American Museum of Natural History, in the scientific journal Nature. He reported that the black pad actually had a far more mundane explanation: it had simply been injected there with Indian ink. Six weeks later, Kammerer committed suicide.
Also, the toad had been brought to England by Kammerer to be displayed during lectures not long before, as a specimen of an acquired characteristic. During this visit it had been handled by eminent pro-Darwinian zoologists, all of whom detested the possibility of Lamarckianism being valid. None of the irregularities discovered by Noble were detected at the time, and since Noble claimed the injected ink was rather conspicuous this suggests that the "act of sabotage" had been committed shortly before Noble's visit to Vienna, when Kammerer was no longer working at the institute.
As a consequence of the fraud, interest in Lamarckian inheritance diminished except in the Soviet Union where it was championed by Lysenko. The orthodox view among the biological establishment remains that acquired characteristics cannot be inherited.
This is in the face of much other laboratory work of Kammerer's over several years with, for example, sea squirts and salamanders where just such inheritance was demonstrated. Many biologists from all over Europe visited him in Vienna and photographs and reports of his work were widely available. Kammerer himself regarded the possible inheritance of a pad on the foot of a male midwife toad as of relatively minor significance in the argument for Lamarckian inheritance. He approved the inspection of the specimen which was found to have been fraudulently tampered with, and expressed great astonishment when the fraud was made known to him.
He postulated that all events are connected by waves of Seriality. These forces would cause what we would perceive as just the peaks, or groupings and coincidences. Kammerer was known to, for example, make notes in public parks of what numbers of people were passing by, how many carried umbrellas, etc. In reviewing the book, Albert Einstein called the idea of Seriality "Interesting, and by no means absurd."
Koestler reported that when researching his biography of the coincidence collector, Kammerer, he himself was subjected to "a meteor shower" of coincidences. It was as if Kammerer's ghost were grinning down at him saying, "I told you so!"
Arthur Koestler, The Case of the Midwife Toad, London: Hutchinson, 1971.