Patmos (Greek, Πάτμος; Italian: Patmo) is a small Greek island in the Aegean Sea. One of the northernmost islands of the Dodecanese complex, it has a population of 2,984 and an area of 34.05 km (13 square miles). The highest point is Profitis Ilias, 269 meters above sea level. The Municipality of Patmos, which includes the offshore islands of Arkoi (pop. 54), Marathi (pop. 6), and several uninhabited islets, has a total population of 3,044 (2001 census) and a combined land area of 45.039 km².
Patmos' main communities are Chora (the capital city), and Skala, the only commercial port. Other settlements are Grikou and Kampos. The churches and communities on Patmos are of the Eastern Orthodox tradition. In 1999, the island's historic center Chora, along with the Monastery of Saint John the Theologian and the Cave of the Apocalypse, were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO. The monastery was founded by Saint Christodulos. Patmos is also home to the Patmian School, a notable Greek seminary.
Patmos is mentioned in the Christian scriptural Book of Revelation. The book's introduction states that its author, John, was exiled to Patmos, where he was given (and recorded) a vision from Jesus. Earliest Christian tradition identifies this writer as John the Apostle. As such, Patmos is a destination for Christian pilgrimage. Visitors can see the cave where John is said to have received his Revelation (the Cave of the Apocalypse), and several monasteries on the island are dedicated to Saint John.
The current mayor of Patmos is Grigoris Kambosos.
Skala is the main settlement on the island, and consists of four areas. Netia, the new port area, stretches along the main road towards Kambos. Netia is made up of a large concrete marina used by both yachts and the larger local fishing boats, and a small boatyard. The opposite side of the road abuts a mountain, which has been excavated somewhat, giving buildings more space to develop. New buildings include a dive center and several restaurants.
The turn from the beach-front road toward Netia is the site of John the Evangelist's baptismal font.
The island also has beaches and coves, including a beach of fine, white sand on the southern end of the Island, Psili Ammos.
The earliest remains of human settlements date to the Middle Bronze Age (ca 2000 BC). They consist of pottery sherds from Kastelli, the most important archaeological site so far identified. Given the fact that Patmos is hardly ever mentioned by ancient writers, very little can be conjectured with regard to the earliest inhabitants of this land. Around 1000 BC, the Patmians prefer to identify themselves as Dorians descending from the families of Argos, Sparta and Epidaurous, further mingling with people of Ionian ancestry. Judging from archaeological finds, Kastelli continues to play an important role on the island throughout the Ancient Greek period (ca 1000 BC-323 BC). During the 3rd century BC, in the Hellenistic period, the settlement of Patmos acquired the form of an acropolis with an improved defence through a fortification wall and towers.
After the death of John of Patmos, possibly around 100 AD, a number of Early Christian basilicas were erected on Patmos. Among these was a Grand Royal Basilica in honour of Saint John, built ca 300-350 at the location where the Monastery of Saint John the Theologian stands today. Early Christian life on Patmos, however, barely survived Arab raids from the 6th to the 9th century. During this period, the Grand Basilica was destroyed. In the 11th century, the Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos gave Reverend Father Christodoulos the complete authority over the island of Patmos, as well as the permission to build a monastery on the island. The construction of the monastery started in 1101.
Population was expanded by infusions of Byzantine immigrants fleeing the Fall of Constantinople in 1453, and Cretan immigrants fleeing the fall of Chandakas (Crete) in 1669. The island was controlled by the Ottoman Empire for many years, but it enjoyed certain privileges, mostly related to tax-free trade by the monastery (as certified by numerous Ottoman imperial documents held in the Library).
In 1912, in connection with the Turco-Italian War, the Italians occupied all the islands of the Dodecanese, including Patmos. The Italians remained there until 1943, when the Germans took over the island. In 1945, the Germans left and the island of Patmos remained autonomous until 1948, when it, together with the rest of the Dodecanese Islands, joined the independent Greece.
According to a legend within the Greek mythology, the island's original name was "Letois," after the goddess Artemis, daughter of Leto. It was believed that Patmos came into existence thanks to her divine intervention. Mythology tells of how Patmos existed as an island at the bottom of the sea. Deer-huntress Artemis frequently paid visits to Karia, the mainland across the shore from Patmos, where she had a shrine on Mount Latmos. There, she used to meet up with the moon goddess Selini, who cast her light on the ocean, revealing the sunken island of Patmos. Selini was always trying to get Artemis to bring the sunken island to the surface and, hence, to life. Selini finally convinced Artemis, who, in turn, elicited her brother Apollo's help, in order to persuade Zeus to allow the island to arise from the sea. Zeus agreed, and the island emerged from the water. The Sun dried up the land and brought life to it. Gradually, inhabitants from the surrounding areas, including Mount Latmos, settled on the island and named it "Letois" in honour of Artemis.
Aerosol retrievals from the Multiyear multisatellite AVHRR pathfinder atmosphere (PATMOS) dataset for correcting remotely sensed sea surface temperatures
Dec 01, 2002; (ProQuest Information and Learning: Formula Omitted) ABSTRACT Eight-year (1990-98), two-satellite (NOAA-11 and -14), global daily...