Ancient district, northern Anatolia, on the Black Sea. A mountainous country, one of the oldest in Anatolia, it submitted to Alexander the Great in 333 BC. In the 3rd–2nd century BC it was gradually absorbed by the Pontic kingdom on its eastern border. In 65 BC the coastal districts, including the capital, Sinope, were attached to Roman Bithynia. The area was incorporated into the Roman province of Galatia in circa 6 BC; the interior regions were left under native rulers. It was part of the Byzantine Empire, and all but its coastal regions were lost to invading Turkish peoples after the Battle of Manzikert (1071).
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|Ancient Region of Anatolia|
|Location||North central Anatolia|
|State existed:||5th c-183 BC|
Paphlagonia was an ancient area on the Black Sea coast of north central Anatolia, situated between Bithynia to the west and Pontus to the east, and separated from Phrygia (later, Galatia) by a prolongation to the east of the Bithynian Olympus. According to Strabo, the river Parthenius formed the western limit of the region, and it was bounded on the east by the Halys river.
In the time of the Hittites, Paphlagonia was inhabited by the Kashka people, whose exact ethnic relation to the Paphlagonians is uncertain. It seems perhaps that they were related to the people of the adjoining country, Cappadocia, who were speakers of one of the Anatolian branch of the Indo-European languages. Their language would appear, from Strabo's testimony, to have been distinctive.
Paphlagonians were mentioned by Herodotus among the peoples conquered by Croesus, and they sent an important contingent to the army of Xerxes in 480 BC. Xenophon speaks of them as being governed by a prince of their own, without any reference to the neighboring satraps, a freedom perhaps due to the nature of their country, with its lofty mountain ranges and difficult passes. All these rulers appear to have borne the name Pylaimenes as a sign that they claimed descent from the chieftain of that name who figures in the Iliad as leader of the Paphlagonians.