Panipat, town (1991 pop. 191,212), Haryana state, NW India, on the Western Yamuna Canal. It has saltpeter refining plants and manufactures electrical appliances, bricks, glass, and textiles. On a plain astride the easiest route from Afghanistan to central India, Panipat has seen several great battles. In 1526, Babur defeated the Delhi Sultanate there, thus paving the way for the formation of the Mughal empire. In 1556, Akbar defeated the Afghans at Panipat and thus secured Mughal rule. In 1761, Panipat was the site of an Afghan victory over the Marathas.
Panipat (Hindi: पानीपत) is an ancient and historic city in Panipat District, Haryana state, India. It is 90 km from Delhi on NH-1 and comes under the National Capital Territory of Delhi. Three battles fought at the city were turning points in Indian history.


Panipat was one of the five cities (prasthas) founded by the Pandava brothers during the times of the Mahabharata; its historic name being Panduprastha. Panipat was the scene of three pivotal battles in Indian history.

The First Battle of Panipat was fought on 21 April 1526 between Ibrahim Lodhi, Sultan of Delhi, and the Timurid warlord Zaheeruddin Babur. Babur's force of twelve thousand soldiers defeated Ibrahim's much larger force of over one lakh (one hundred thousand) soldiers. Babur founded the Mughal Empire in India.

The Second Battle of Panipat was fought on 5 November 1556 between the Mughal general Bairam Khan Shaibani, regent for the young Emperor Akbar, and Hemu, courtier and general of Isa Khan Suri, Islam Shah Suri brother in law who murdered Islam Shah's young son and usurped the throne of Delhi won by Sher Shah Suri from the Mughal Emperor Humayun. Hemu was struck down by an arrow in the eye and his army fled. He was beheaded and the Mughal comeback in India was complete.

The Third Battle of Panipat was fought in 1761 between the Afghan king Ahmad Shah Abdali and the Marathas under Sadashivrao Bhau of Pune. Ahmad Shah won decisively.

The famous Urdu shayar Maulana Hali was born in Panipat.


Panipat is located at . It has an average elevation of 219 metres (718 feet).

Panipat is situated on Shershah Suri Marg (now known as G.T. road - N.H.1.), 90 KM from Delhi. The three sides of this Panipat touch other districts of Haryana - Karnal in the north, Jind in the west and Sonipat in the south. Panipat borders Uttar Pradesh across Yamuna in the east.

Panipat was the part of District Karnal until October 31, 1989. It was separated from Karnal, along with another subdivison, Assandh Tehsil. When the District was re-formed on January 1, 1992, Assandh Tehsil was excluded.


As of 2001 India census, Panipat had a population of 967,449. Males constitute 55% of the population and females 45%. Panipat has an average literacy rate of 69%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 73%, and female literacy is 64%. In Panipat, 14% of the population is under 6 years of age.


Panipat is a city of textiles and carpets. It is the biggest centre for cheap blankets and carpets in India and has a handloom weaving industry. The pickle "Pachranga International" is also well known. Panipat also has heavy industry, with a refinery of the Indian Oil Corporation, a National Thermal Power Corporation power plant and a National Fertilizers Limited plant.

Some salient features of industry in Panipat include:

* Three major public sector projects: the Indian Oil Corporation oil refinery, the National Fertilizers Limited plant and the thermal power station.
*Biggest centre in the country for producing shoddy (recycled) yarn, and a large consumer of rags for reprocessing.
*Biggest centre in the country for producing low priced blankets, a traditional supplier of barrack blankets to the armed forces.
*Biggest centre in the country engaged in export of cotton durries, made-ups, throws and mats.
*Samalkha, a small town near Panipat, is known for foundry work and supply of agricultural machinery to neighbouring Uttar Pradesh.
*Relatively high wages compared to the Indian national average - a worker earns Rs.100/- to 150/- per day on Handloom/ Powerloom.
*The town has infrastructure such as rail, road and inland container depots well suited to industry and export.


The main places of attraction are the grave of Ibrahim Lodhi, Kabuli Bagh, Devi Mandir, Kala Amb, Salar Gunj Gate, and the tomb of the thirteenth century sufi saint Bu Ali Shah Qalandar.

'Kala Amb' is a memorial built in memory of the soldiers who died in the battlefield of Panipat. It is said that blood of the dead soldiers was mixed with the soil and the fruit of a mango tree became black in color and hence the name "Kala Amb," meaning "Black Mango."

Education institutions in Panipat

City Schools

* LNT Global School (ICSE)

  • St. Mary's Convent Sr. Sec. School*
  • D.P.S Panipat City
  • S.D. Vidya Mandir
  • Dr.M.K.K Arya Model School
  • M.A.S.D School
  • Kendriya Vidyala
  • D.P.S Refinary
  • Kinder Kin High School
  • Bal Vikas School
  • Govt. School Red Light Chowk Panipat

General colleges

  • S D College
  • I B College
  • Arya College
  • Govt.PG college, israna

Engineering colleges & Management Colleges

  • LNT College of Education,G. T. Road, Machhrauli, Panipat.(
  • Institute of Hotel Management, Catering & Nutrition, Panipat
  • Lord Shiva College of Education, Gohana Road, Dahar, Panipat.
  • SGM College of Education, Gohana Road, Dahar, Panipat.
  • AVS College of Education, Gohana Road, Mehrana, Panipat.
  • CPT College of Education, Gohana Road, Mehrana, Panipat.
  • INC (The Icfai National College), G.T.Road, Panipat,A Prime destination for MBA Education.
  • N C College of Engineering, Israna NCCE
  • Panipat Institute of Engineering & Technology, Samalkha PIET
  • S.D. Institute of Technology and Management, Israna SDIT

Professional Academies

  • Tally Academy, E-39, Industrial Area, opp. Fire Brigade, Near Hali Park, Panipat. Ph. Nos. 0180-4013100,4013200.



External links

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