Original Pagode developed in the start of the 1980s, with the advent of Grupo Fundo de Quintal and the introduction of three new instruments in the classical samba formation. Pagode lyricism also represented a kind of evolution towards the tradition of malicious and ironic samba lyrics, with a much heavier use of slang and underground terms (gírias).
The banjo, whose introduction is mostly credited to Almir Guineto, is a banjo cavaquinho. The banjo has a different and louder sound than the cavaquinho; that loudness is an advantage in an acoustic roda de samba where there are lots of percussion instruments and people singing along. The banjo is one of the most characteristic instruments of the pagode sound.
Co-option, cultural resistance, and Afro-Brazilian identity: a history of the pagode samba movement in rio de Janeiro.
Sep 22, 1996; Lauded by popular composer and scholar Nei Lopes as "the most important musical phenomenon of the 1980s in Brazil" (1993, 7), the...