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Orifice_plate

Orifice plate

An orifice plate is a device used to measure the rate of fluid flow. It uses the same principle as a Venturi nozzle, namely Bernoulli's principle which says that there is a relationship between the pressure of the fluid and the velocity of the fluid. When the velocity increases, the pressure decreases and vice versa.

An orifice plate is basically a thin plate with a hole in the middle. It is usually placed in a pipe in which fluid flows. As fluid flows through the pipe, it has a certain velocity and a certain pressure. When the fluid reaches the orifice plate, with the hole in the middle, the fluid is forced to converge to go through the small hole; the point of maximum convergence actually occurs shortly downstream of the physical orifice, at the so-called vena contracta point (see drawing to the right). As it does so, the velocity and the pressure changes. Beyond the vena contracta, the fluid expands and the velocity and pressure change once again. By measuring the difference in fluid pressure between the normal pipe section and at the vena contracta, the volumetric and mass flow rates can be obtained from Bernoulli's equation.

Flow of incompressible or compressible fluids through an orifice

By assuming steady-state, incompressible (constant fluid density), inviscid, laminar flow in a horizontal pipe (no change in elevation) with negligible frictional losses, Bernoulli's equation reduces to an equation relating the conservation of energy at two points in the fluid flow:

P_1 + frac{1}{2}cdotrho_1cdot V_1^2 = P_2 + frac{1}{2}cdotrho_1cdot V_2^2

or:

P_1 - P_2 = frac{1}{2}cdotrho_1cdot V_2^2 - frac{1}{2}cdotrho_1cdot V_1^2

with:

Q = A_1cdot V_1 = A_2cdot V_2   or   V_1 = Q/A_1 and V_2 = Q/A_2 :

P_1 - P_2 = frac{1}{2}cdotrho_1cdot bigg(frac{Q}{A_2}bigg)^2 - frac{1}{2}cdotrho_1cdotbigg(frac{Q}{A_1}bigg)^2

Solving for Q:

Q = A_2;sqrt{frac{2;(P_1-P_2)/rho_1}{1-(A_2/A_1)^2}}

and:

Q = A_2;sqrt{frac{1}{1-(d_2/d_1)^4}};sqrt{2;(P_1-P_2)/rho_1}

and introducing the beta factor beta = d_2/d_1 as well as the coefficient of discharge C_d:

Q = C_d; A_2;sqrt{frac{1}{1-beta^4}};sqrt{2;(P_1-P_2)/rho_1}

And finally introducing the expansion factor Y to account for the compressibility of gases and the meter coefficient C which is defined as C = frac{C_d}{sqrt{1-beta^4}} to obtain the final equation for the volumetric flow of the fluid (either compressible or incompressible) upstream of the orifice:

(1)qquad Q = C;Y;A_2;sqrt{2;(P_1-P_2)/rho_1}

Multiplying by the density upstream of the orifice to obtain the equation for the mass flow of the fluid (either compressible or incompressible) at any point in the fluid flow:

(2)qquad dot{m} = rho_1;Q = C;Y;A_2;sqrt{2;rho_1;(P_1-P_2)}

where:  
Q = volumetric flow rate (at any point), m³/s
dot{m} = mass flow rate (at any point), kg/s
C_d = coefficient of discharge, dimensionless
C = orifice flow coefficient, dimensionless (often denoted as K)
Y = expansion factor, dimensionless
A_1 = cross-sectional area of the pipe, m²
A_2 = cross-sectional area of the orifice hole, m²
d_1 = diameter of the pipe, m
d_2 = diameter of the orifice hole, m
beta = ratio of orifice hole diameter to pipe diameter, dimensionless
V_1 = upstream fluid velocity, m/s
V_2 = fluid velocity through the orifice hole, m/s
P_1 = fluid upstream pressure, Pa   with dimensions of kg/(m ·s² )
P_2 = fluid downstream pressure, Pa   with dimensions of kg/(m ·s² )
rho_1 = upstream fluid density, kg/m³

Deriving the above equations used the cross-section of the orifice opening and is not as realistic as using the minimum cross-section at the vena contracta. In addition, frictional losses may not be negligible and viscosity and turbulence effects may be present. For that reason, the coefficient of discharge C_d is introduced. Methods exist for determining the coefficient of discharge as a function of the Reynolds number.

The parameter sqrt{1-beta^4} is often referred to as the velocity of approach factor and dividing the coefficient of discharge by that parameter (as was done above) produces the flow coefficient C. Methods also exist for determining the flow coefficient as a function of the beta function beta and the location of the downstream pressure sensing tap. For rough approximations, the flow coefficient may be assumed to be between 0.60 and 0.75. For a first approximation, a flow coefficient of 0.62 can be used as this approximates to fully developed flow.

The expansion factor, Y, accounts for the compressibility of gases. It is 1.0 for incompressible fluids and it can be calculated for compressible gases.

An orifice only works well when supplied with a fully developed flow profile. This is achieved by a long upstream length (20 to 40 pipe diameters, depending on Reynolds number) or the use of a flow conditioner. Orifice plates are small and inexpensive but do not recover the pressure drop as well as a venturi nozzle does. If space permits, a venturi meter is more efficient than a flowmeter.

Flow of gases through an orifice

The expansion factor Y, which allows for the change in the density of an ideal gas as it expands adiabatically, is given by:

Y =;sqrt{r^{2/k}bigg(frac{k}{k-1}bigg)bigg(frac{;1-r^{(k-1)/k;}}{1-r}bigg)bigg(frac{1-beta^4}{1-beta^{4};r^{2/k}}bigg)}

For values of beta less than 0.25, beta^4 approaches 0 and the last bracketed term in the above equation approaches 1. Thus, for the large majority of orifice plate installations:

(3)qquad Y =;sqrt{r^{2/k}bigg(frac{k}{k-1}bigg)bigg(frac{;1-r^{(k-1)/k;}}{1-r}bigg)}

where:  
Y = Expansion factor, dimensionless
r = P_2/P_1
k = specific heat ratio (c_p/c_v), dimensionless

Substituting equation (3) into the mass flow rate equation (2):

dot{m} = C;A_2;sqrt{2;rho_1;bigg (frac{k}{k-1}bigg)bigg[frac{(P_2/P_1)^{2/k}-(P_2/P_1)^{(k+1)/k}}{1-P_2/P_1}bigg](P_1-P_2)}

and:

dot{m} = C;A_2;sqrt{2;rho_1;bigg (frac{k}{k-1}bigg)bigg[frac{(P_2/P_1)^{2/k}-(P_2/P_1)^{(k+1)/k}}{(P_1-P_2)/P_1}bigg](P_1-P_2)}

and thus, the final equation for the non-choked (i.e., sub-sonic) flow of real gases through an orifice:

(4)qquad dot{m} = C;A_2;sqrt{2;rho_1;P_1;bigg (frac{k}{k-1}bigg)bigg[(P_2/P_1)^{2/k}-(P_2/P_1)^{(k+1)/k}bigg]}

Using the ideal gas law and the compressibility factor (which corrects for non-ideal gases), the equivalent equation is obtained for the non-choked flow of real gases through an orifice:

(5)qquad dot{m} = C;A_2;P_1;sqrt{frac{2;M}{Z;R;T_1}bigg(frac{k}{k-1}bigg)bigg[(P_2/P_1)^{2/k}-(P_2/P_1)^{(k+1)/k}bigg]}

where:  
''k = specific heat ratio (c_p/c_v), dimensionless
dot{m} = mass flow rate at any point, kg/s
C = orifice flow coefficient, dimensionless (often denoted as K)
A_2 = cross-sectional area of the orifice hole, m²
rho_1 = upstream real gas density, kg/m³
P_1 = upstream gas pressure, Pa   with dimensions of kg/(m ·s²)
P_2 = downstream pressure in the orifice hole, Pa  with dimensions of kg/(m ·s²)
M = the gas molecular mass, kg/kmol    (also known as the molecular weight)
R = the Universal Gas Law Constant = 8314.5 Pa·m³/(kmol·K)
T_1 = absolute upstream gas temperature, K
Z = the gas compressibility factor at P_1 and T_1, dimensionless

A detailed explanation of choked and non-choked flow of gases, as well as the equation for the choked flow of gases through restriction orifices, is available at Choked flow.

The flow of real gases through thin-plate orifices never becomes fully choked. The mass flow rate through the orifice continues to increase as the downstream pressure is lowered to a perfect vacuum, though the mass flow rate increases slowly as the downstream pressure is reduced below the critical pressure. "Cunningham (1951) first drew attention to the fact that choked flow will not occur across a standard, thin, square-edged orifice."

Permanent pressure drop for incompressible fluids

For a square-edge orifice plate with flange taps:
frac{Delta P_p}{Delta P_i} =
1 - 0.24 beta - 0.52 beta ^2 - 0.16 beta ^3
where:
Delta P_p = permanent pressure drop
Delta P_i = indicated pressure drop at the flange taps
beta = d_2 / d_1
And rearranging the formula near the top of this article:
Delta P_i = P_1 - P_2 = frac {Q^2 ~rho~ (1 - beta ^4)} {2 ~C_d^2~ A_2^2} = frac {Q^2 ~rho~ (1 - beta ^4)} {2 ~C_d^2 ~A_1^2 ~beta ^4}

See also

References

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