Definitions

Oral

Oral

[awr-uhl, ohr-]
Oral, formerly Uralsk, city (1989 pop. 199,835), NW Kazakhstan, on the Ural River. Among its industries are the repair of agricultural equipment, grain processing, and tanning. It was founded as Uralsk in 1622 by the Ural Cossacks, who fought with Stenka Razin in the uprising of 1667 and against the Bolsheviks in 1918-19. It was an important trade center on the border of European Russia and Kazakhstan.
or oral cavity or buccal cavity

Orifice through which food and air enter the body. It opens to the outside at the lips and empties into the throat at the rear and is bounded by the lips, cheeks, hard and soft palates, and glottis. Its chief structures are the teeth (see tooth), tongue, and palate. It is the site of chewing and speech formation. The mouth is lined by mucous membranes containing small glands that, along with the salivary glands, keep it moist and clear of food and other debris.

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or hoof-and-mouth disease

Highly contagious viral disease of cloven-footed mammals (including cattle), spread by ingestion and inhalation. The afflicted animal develops fever and painful blisters on the tongue, lips, other tissues of the mouth, muzzle or snout, teats, and feet. FMD is endemic in many places. Because of its rapid spread and impact on animal productivity, it is considered the most economically devastating livestock disease in the world. It is not a human health hazard. No effective treatment exists; vaccines control epidemics but have not eliminated them. Since the virus can persist, quarantine, slaughter, cremation or burial of carcasses, and decontamination must be rigorous. Strict surveillance has kept North America largely FMD-free since 1929. In early 2001 a major outbreak occurred in the United Kingdom, followed shortly by outbreaks in The Netherlands and France.

Learn more about foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

The word oral may refer to:

As an adjective:

  • the mouth.
  • speech communication as opposed to writing.
  • oral schools use oralism to teach the deaf.
  • oral stage, Sigmund Freud's name for a child's development during the first 0 to 18 months of life, in which an infant's pleasure centers are in the mouth.
  • oral sex

Other:

See also

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