See A. Fletcher, A Study of Omaha Indian Music (1893); A. Fletcher and F. La Flesche, The Omaha Tribe (1907); R. F. Fortune, Omaha Secret Societies (1932).
Founded when the Nebraska Territory was opened to settlement in 1854, it grew as a supply point for westward migration and became a thriving transportation and industrial center after the arrival of the railroad in 1869. It was the territorial capital from 1855 to 1867. A world's fair, the Trans-Mississippi and International Exhibition, was held there in 1898.
The city has noted park and school systems and is the seat of Creighton Univ., the Univ. of Nebraska at Omaha, and the College of St. Mary. Of interest are the Joslyn Art Museum, an aerospace museum, a Mormon cemetery, and Fontenelle Forest. Fort Omaha (built 1868) serves as headquarters of the naval reserve training command. Offutt Air Force Base, south of the city, was the headquarters of the Strategic Air Command (SAC) from 1946 to 1992, when SAC was abolished; the interservice Strategic Command is now based there. Boys Town is to the west of the city.
City (pop., 2006 est.: 419,545), eastern Nebraska, U.S., on the Missouri River, north of its junction with the Platte River. The city's name, meaning “upstream people,” referred to the Omaha Indians. Omaha was founded in 1854 and incorporated as a city in 1857. In 1863 it became the starting point for the Union Pacific Railroad Co.'s first transcontinental railroad, and it soon grew into a centre of trade and industry. Now it is the largest city in the state, as well as a major livestock and grain market. Food processing remains important despite a drastic decline in the local meat packing industry in the late 20th century. Omaha is a railroad and insurance centre. It is home to the University of Nebraska and the Joslyn Art Museum.
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Omaha is the largest city in the state of Nebraska, United States, and is the county seat of Douglas County. It is located in the Midwestern United States on the Missouri River, about 20 miles (30 km) north of the mouth of the Platte River. Omaha is the anchor of the Omaha-Council Bluffs metropolitan area, with Council Bluffs, Iowa sitting adjacent to Omaha across the Missouri River. According to the 2008 estimate by the United States Census Bureau, Omaha's population was 432,921. The city is the nation's 42nd-largest, according to 2007 U.S. Census Bureau estimates; along with its suburbs Omaha formed the 60th-largest metropolitan area in the United States in 2000, with an estimated population of 829,890 residing in eight counties. There are more than 1.2 million residents within a 50 mile (80 km) radius of the city's center.
Omaha's pioneer period began in 1854 when the city was founded by speculators from neighboring Kanesville, Iowa. The city was founded along the Missouri River, and a crossing called Lone Tree Ferry earned the city its nickname, the "Gateway to the West." During the 19th century Omaha's central location in the United States caused the city to become an important national transportation hub. Throughout the rest of the 19th century the transportation and jobbing sectors were important in the city, along with its railroads and breweries. In the 20th century the Omaha Stockyards and meatpacking plants gained local and national prominence.
The city is the home to five Fortune 500 companies: ConAgra Foods, Union Pacific Corporation, Peter Kiewit and Sons, Inc., Mutual of Omaha Companies, and Berkshire Hathaway, the company headed by legendary investor and so-called Oracle of Omaha, Warren Buffett, the richest person in the world according to Forbes Magazine in 2008. The Gallup Organization, TD Ameritrade, PayPal and LinkedIn all have major operations or headquarters in Omaha. The city also is the home to three of the top 30 architectural and engineering firms in the world: Leo A. Daly Co., HDR, Inc. and DLR Group.
Today the economy of Omaha is diverse and built on skilled knowledge jobs. In 2001 Newsweek identified Omaha as one of the Top 10 high-tech havens in the nation. Six national fiber optic networks converge in Omaha. Tourism in Omaha benefits the city's economy greatly, with the annual College World Series providing important revenue and the city's Henry Doorly Zoo serving as the top attraction in Nebraska.
The historic preservation movement in the city has led to a number of historic structures and districts being designated Omaha Landmarks or listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The city has a number of ethnic groups represented in its population. Race relations in the city have included a number of riots, lynchings, and recently, gang violence. The diverse culture of Omaha includes a variety of performance venues, museums, and musical heritage, including the historically-significant jazz scene in North Omaha and the modern and influential "Omaha Sound." Sports have been important in Omaha for more than a century, and the city currently hosts four professional sports teams. Omaha also has a number of recreational trails and parks located throughout the city.
Omaha Public Schools is the largest public school district in Nebraska, and the city has a number of Catholic schools. There are eleven colleges and universities among Omaha's higher education institutions, including the University of Nebraska at Omaha. Omaha's Creighton University is ranked the top non-doctoral regional college in the Midwestern United States by U.S. News and World Report. The city's strong mayor form of government has gone through transitions in the city's history, and Omaha has considered consolidating with Douglas County. Completed in 2002, the 45 story First National Bank Tower in Downtown Omaha is the tallest building in Omaha.
Since the 1600s a number of Native American tribes have variously occupied the land that became Omaha, including the Omaha, Pawnee, Otoe, the Missouri, the Ponca and Ioway. The word "Omaha" (actually UmoNhoN or UmaNhaN) means "Dwellers on the bluff". The Lewis and Clark Expedition passed by the riverbanks that would later become the city of Omaha in 1804. Between July 30 and August 3, 1804, members of the expedition, including Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, met with Oto and Missouria tribal leaders at the Council Bluff at a point about 20 miles (30 km) north of present-day Omaha. Immediately south of that area several fur trading outposts were built in succeeding years, including Fort Lisa in 1812; Fort Atkinson in 1819; Cabanné's Trading Post, built in 1822, and Fontenelle's Post in 1823, in what became Bellevue. There was fierce competition among fur traders until John Jacob Astor created the monopoly of the American Fur Company. The Mormons built a town called Cutler's Park in the area in 1846, and while it was temporary the settlement provided the basis for further development in the future.
Through 18 separate treaties with the federal government, Native American tribes in Nebraska gradually ceded the lands currently comprising the state. One treaty and cession directly affected the Omaha area. That occurred in 1854 when the Omaha Tribe ceded most of east-central Nebraska. Logan Fontenelle, chief of the Omaha, played an essential role in those proceedings.
Many of Omaha's founding figures stayed at the Douglas House or the Cozzens House Hotel. Dodge Street was important early in the city's early commercial history; North 24th Street and South 24th Street developed independently as business districts, as well. Most early pioneers were buried in Prospect Hill Cemetery, next to soldiers from Fort Omaha, early European immigrants and African Americans. There are several other historical cemeteries in Omaha, historical Jewish synagogues and historical Christian churches.
The economy of Omaha boomed and busted through its early years. First the jobbing and wholesaling district brought new jobs, followed by the railroads and the stockyards. Groundbreaking for the First Transcontinental Railroad in 1863, providing an essential developmental boom for the city. The Union Pacific Railroad was authorized by the U.S. Congress to begin building westward railways in 1862; in January 1866 it commenced construction out of Omaha.
Equally as important, the Omaha Stockyards were founded in 1883. Within twenty years of the founding of the Union Stockyards in South Omaha four of the five major meatpacking companies in the United States were located in Omaha. By the 1950s half the city's workforce was employed in meatpacking and processing. Meatpacking, jobbing and railroads were responsible for most of the growth in the city from the late 19th century through the early decades of the 20th century.
Immigrants soon created ethnic enclaves throughout the city, including Irish in Sheelytown in South Omaha; Germans in the Near North Side, joined by Eastern European Jews and black migrants from the South; and Little Italy and Little Bohemia in South Omaha. Beginning in the late 1800s, Omaha's upper class lived in posh enclaves throughout the city, including the south and north Gold Coast neighborhoods, Bemis Park, Kountze Place, Field Club and throughout Midtown Omaha. They traveled the city's sprawling park system on boulevards designed by renowned landscape architect Horace Cleveland. The Omaha Horse Railway first carried passengers throughout the city, as did the later Omaha Cable Tramway Company and several similar companies. In 1888 the Omaha and Council Bluffs Railway and Bridge Company built the Douglas Street Bridge, the first pedestrian and wagon bridge between Omaha and Council Bluffs.
Gambling, drinking and prostitution were widespread in the 19th century, first rampant in the city's Burnt District and later in the Sporting District. Controlled by Omaha's political boss Tom Dennison by 1890, criminal elements enjoyed support from Omaha's "perpetual" mayor, "Cowboy Jim" Dahlman, nicknamed for his eight terms as mayor. Calamities such as the Great Flood of 1881 did not slow down the city's violence. In 1882 the Camp Dump Strike pitted state militia against unionized strikers, drawing national attention to Omaha's labor troubles. The Governor of Nebraska had to call in U.S. Army troops from nearby Fort Omaha to protect strikebreakers for the Burlington Railroad, bringing along Gatling guns and a cannon for defense. When the event ended there was one man dead and several wounded. In 1891 a mob hanged an African-American porter named Joe Coe after he was accused of raping a white girl. There were several other riots and civil unrest events in Omaha during this period, as well.
In 1898 Omaha's leaders, under the guidance of Gurdon Wattles, held the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition, touted as a celebration of agricultural and industrial growth throughout the Midwest. The Indian Congress, which drew more than 500 American Indians from across the country, was held simultaneously. More than 2,000,000 visitors attended these events, located at Kountze Park and the Omaha Driving Park in the Kountze Place neighborhood.
With dramatically increasing population in the 20th century, there was major civil unrest in Omaha resulting from competition and fierce labor struggles. In 1900 Omaha was the center of a national uproar over the kidnapping of Edward Cudahy, Jr., the son of a local meatpacking magnate. The city's labor and management clashed in bitter strikes, racial tension escalated as blacks were hired as strikebreakers, and ethnic strife broke out. A major riot by ethnic whites in South Omaha destroyed the city's Greek Town in 1909, completely driving out the Greek population. The civil rights movement in Omaha has roots that extend back to 1912, when the first chapter of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People west of the Mississippi River was founded in the city. The Omaha Easter Sunday Tornado of 1913 destroyed much of the city's African American community, in addition to much of Midtown Omaha. Six years later in 1919 the city was caught up in the Red Summer riots when thousands of ethnic whites marched from South Omaha to the courthouse to lynch a black worker, Willy Brown, a suspect in an alleged rape of a white woman. The mob burned the Douglas County Courthouse to get the prisoner, causing more than $1,000,000 damage. They hung and shot Will Brown, then burned his body. Troops were called in from Fort Omaha to quell the riot, prevent more crowds gathering in South Omaha, and to protect the black community in North Omaha.
The culture of North Omaha thrived throughout the 1920s through 1950s, with several creative figures, including Tillie Olsen, Wallace Thurman, Lloyd Hunter, and Anna Mae Winburn emerging from the vibrant Near North Side. Musicians created their own world in Omaha, and also joined national bands and groups that toured and appeared in the city.
After the tumultuous Great Depression of the 1930s, Omaha rebounded with the development of Offutt Air Force Base just south of the city. The Glenn L. Martin Company operated a factory there in the 1940s that produced 521 B-29 Superfortresses, including the Enola Gay and Bockscar used in the bombing of Japan in WWII. The construction of Interstates 80, 480 and 680, along with the North Omaha Freeway, spurred development. There was also controversy, particularly in North Omaha, where several neighborhoods were bisected by new routes. Creighton University hosted the DePorres Club, an early civil rights group whose sit-in strategies for integration of public facilities predated the national movement, starting in 1947. Following the development of the Glenn L. Martin Company bomber manufacturing plant in Bellevue at the beginning of World War II, the relocation of the Strategic Air Command to that Omaha suburb in 1948 provided a major economic boost to the area.
From the 1950s through the 1960s Omaha was home to more than 40 insurance companies were headquartered in Omaha, including Woodmen of the World and Mutual of Omaha. By the late 1960s the city rivaled, but never surpassed, the insurance centers of Hartford, Connecticut, New York City and Boston, Massachusetts. After surpassing Chicago in meat processing by the late 1950s, Omaha suffered the loss of 10,000 jobs as both the railroad and meatpacking industries restructured. The city struggled for decades to shift its economy and workers suffered, losing jobs and hard won gains in wages. Poverty became more entrenched among families who remained in North Omaha. In the 1960s three major race riots along North 24th Street destroyed the Near North Side's economic base, with recovery slow for decades. In 1969, Woodmen Tower was completed and became Omaha's tallest building and first major skyscraper at , a sign of renewal.
Since the 1970s, Omaha has continued expanding and growing, mostly to available land to the west. West Omaha has become home to the majority of the city's population. North and South Omaha's populations continue to be centers of new immigrants, with economic and racial diversity. In 1975 a major tornado, along with a major blizzard, demolished more than $100 million in damage in 1975 dollars. Downtown Omaha has been rejuvenated in numerous ways, starting with the development of Gene Leahy Mall and W. Dale Clark Library in the late 1970s. In the 1980s Omaha's fruit warehouses were converted into a shopping area called the Old Market. The demolition of Jobber's Canyon in 1989 led to the creation of the ConAgra campus. Several nearby buildings, including the Nash Block, have been converted into condominiums. The stockyards were taken down and the only surviving building is the Livestock Exchange Building, which was converted to multi-use and listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
Around the turn of the century several new downtown skyscrapers and cultural institutions were built. One First National Center was completed in 2002, replacing the Woodmen Tower as the tallest building in Omaha at . The creation of the city's new North Downtown, also called "NoDo", included the construction of the Qwest Center and the Slowdown/Film Streams development at North 14th and Webster Streets. New construction has occurred throughout the city, with important developments throughout West Omaha and on the site of the former Ak-Sar-Ben arena. Downtown and Midtown Omaha have both seen the development of a significant number of condominiums in recent years. "Midtown Crossing at Turner Park" is a development in Midtown being developed by Mutual of Omaha. A , 32 story tall skyscraper called WallStreet Tower Omaha is being constructed on the site of the second Union Pacific headquarters. The completion of the tower date is slated for late 2011.
There have also been several developments along the Missouri River waterfront. The Bob Kerrey Pedestrian Bridge was recently completed and opened to foot and bicycle traffic on September 28, 2008. Started in 2003, Riverfront Place is planned to have two towers, with tower one recently completed and tower two breaking ground in 2009. The development along Omaha's riverfront is attributed with prompting the City of Council Bluffs to move their own riverfront development time line forward.
The 2008 United States Olympic Team Trials were in Omaha held from June 29 to July 6. Two people in each individual discipline participated, along with up to six people for the 4x100 freestyle relays and 4x200 freestyle relay swimming events. The event was a highlight in the city's sports community, as well as a showcase for redevelopment in the downtown area.
Omaha is located at . According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 118.9 square miles (307.9 km²). 115.7 square miles (299.7 km²) of it is land and 3.2 square miles (8.2 km²) of it is water. The total area is 2.67% water. Situated in the Midwestern United States on the shore of the Missouri River in eastern Nebraska, much of Omaha is built in the Missouri River Valley. Other significant bodies of water in the Omaha-Council Bluffs metropolitan area include Lake Manawa, Papillion Creek, Carter Lake, Platte River and the Glenn Cunningham Lake. The city's land has been altered considerably with substantial land grading throughout Downtown Omaha and scattered across the city. East Omaha sits on a flood plain west of the Missouri River. The area is the location of Carter Lake, an oxbow lake. The lake was once the site of East Omaha Island and Florence Lake, which dried up in the 1920s.
The Omaha-Council Bluffs metropolitan area consists of eight counties; five in Nebraska and three in Iowa. now includes Harrison, Pottawattamie, and Mills Counties in Iowa and Washington, Douglas, Sarpy, Cass, and Saunders Counties in Nebraska. This area was formerly referred to only as the Omaha Metropolitan Statistical Area and consisted of only five counties: Pottawattamie in Iowa, and Washington, Douglas, Cass, and Sarpy in Nebraska. The Omaha-Council Bluffs combined statistical area comprises the Omaha-Council Bluffs metropolitan statistical area and the Fremont Micropolitan statistical area; the CSA has a population of 858,720 (2005 Census Bureau estimate). Omaha ranks as the 42nd-largest city in the United States, and is the core city of its 60th-largest metropolitan area. There are currently no consolidated city-counties in the area; the City of Omaha studied the possibility extensively through 2003 and concluded, "The City of Omaha and Douglas County should merge into a municipal county, work to commence immediately, and that functional consolidations begin immediately in as many departments as possible, including but not limited to parks, fleet management, facilities management, local planning, purchasing and personnel.
Geographically, Omaha is considered as being located in the "Heartland" of the United States. Important environmental impacts on the natural habitat in the area include the spread of invasive plant species, restoring prairies and bur oak savanna habitats, and managing the whitetail deer population.
Omaha is generally divided into five geographic areas: Downtown, Midtown, North Omaha, South Omaha and West Omaha. West Omaha includes the Crossroads, Miracle Hills, Girls and Boys Town, and Gateway areas. There is also small community in East Omaha. The city has a wide range of historical and new neighborhoods and suburbs that reflect its socioeconomic diversity. Early neighborhood development happened in ethnic enclaves, including Little Italy, Little Bohemia and Greek Town. In 1989 U.S. Census data was used to identify five European ethnic enclaves in 1880 and nine ethnic enclaves in 1900.
At the turn of the century the City of Omaha annexed several surrounding communities, including Florence, Dundee and Benson. At the same time, the city annexed all of South Omaha, including the Dahlman and Burlington Road neighborhoods. From its first annexation in 1857 (of East Omaha) to its recent and controversial annexation of Elkhorn, Omaha has constantly had an eye towards growth.
Starting in the 1950s, development of highways and new housing led to movement of middle class to suburbs in West Omaha. Some of the movement was designated as white flight from racial unrest in the 1960s. Newer and poorer migrants lived in older housing close to downtown; those residents who were more established moved west into newer housing. Some suburbs have evolved to gated communities and edge cities. Recently, Omahans have made strides to revitalize the downtown area with the redevelopment of the Old Market and the designation of the Omaha Rail and Commerce Historic District.
Omaha is home to dozens of nationally, regionally and locally significant landmarks. The city has more than a dozen historic districts, including Fort Omaha Historic District, Gold Coast Historic District, Omaha Quartermaster Depot Historic District, Field Club Historic District, Bemis Park Historic District, and the South Omaha Main Street Historic District. Omaha is notorious for its 1989 demolition of 24 buildings in the Jobbers Canyon Historic District, which represents to date the largest loss of buildings on the National Register. The only original building surviving of that complex is the Nash Block.
Omaha has almost one hundred individual properties listed on the National Register of Historic Places, including the Bank of Florence, Holy Family Church, the Christian Specht Building and the Joslyn Castle. There are also three properties designated as National Historic Landmarks.
Locally designated landmarks, including residential, commercial, religious, educational, agricultural and socially significant locations across the city, honor Omaha's cultural legacy and important history. The City of Omaha Landmarks Heritage Preservation Commission is the government body that works with the mayor of Omaha and the Omaha City Council to protect historic places. Important history organizations in the community include the Douglas County Historical Society.
Omaha has had its share of natural disasters by water and wind. The city's Carter Lake was formed by a massive flood which altered the course of the Missouri River. The Great Flood of 1881 filled Omaha and Council Bluffs with water for almost a month, causing two fatalities and millions of dollars in damage. As many as 1,000 people were displaced by a flood in 1943, which sent the Missouri River, Carter Lake, and the old Florence Lake into homes and businesses throughout East Omaha. The flood of April 13, 1952 led to 40,000 people being evacuated from East Omaha and Carter Lake. President Harry S. Truman personally visited the scene of the flooding in Omaha and officially declared it a disaster area.
Several neighborhoods in central Omaha and North Omaha were severely damaged by the Easter Sunday tornado of 1913, which destroyed many businesses and neighborhoods. More than 200 people died during the event. The Omaha Tornado of 1975 cut through 10 miles of streets and residences, crossing the city's busiest intersection at 72nd and Dodge. Three people were killed and 133 were reported injured.
There are 156,738 households out of which 30.0% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.8% are married couples living together, 13.0% have a female householder with no husband present, and 39.4% are non-families. 31.9% of all households are made up of individuals and 9.4% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.42 and the average family size is 3.10. In the city the average age of the population is diverse with 25.6% under the age of 18, 11.0% from 18 to 24, 30.8% from 25 to 44, 20.7% from 45 to 64, and 11.8% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 34 years. For every 100 females there are 95.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 92.2 males.
The median income for a household in the city is $40,006, and the median income for a family is $50,821. Males have a median income of $34,301 versus $26,652 for females. The per capita income for the city is $21,756. 11.3% of the population and 7.8% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 15.6% of those under the age of 18 and 7.4% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line.
Native Americans were the first residents in the Omaha area. The city of Omaha was established by European Americans from neighboring Council Bluffs who arrived from the Northeast United States a few years earlier. While much of the first population was from the northern tier and of Yankee stock, over the next 100 years numerous ethnic groups have enriched the city. Irish immigrants in Omaha originally moved to an area in present-day North Omaha called "Gophertown", as they lived in dirt dugouts. That population was succeeded by Polish immigrants in the Sheelytown neighborhood. Most immigrants were recruited for jobs in the Omaha Stockyards and meatpacking industry.
The German community in Omaha was largely responsible for founding its once-thriving beer industry, including the Metz, Krug and the Storz breweries. Mexicans originally immigrated to Omaha to work in the rail yards. Today they compose the majority of South Omaha's Hispanic population and many have taken jobs in meat processing.
In the early 20th century, Jewish immigrants set up numerous businesses along the North 24th Street commercial area. It suffered with the loss of industrial jobs in the 1960s and later, and the shifting of population west of the city. The commercial area is now the center of the African Americans community, concentrated in North Omaha. Omaha's first Italian enclave grew south of downtown, with many Italian immigrants coming to the city to work in the Union Pacific shops. Scandinavians first came to Omaha as Mormon settlers in the Florence neighborhood. Czechs had a strong political and cultural voice in Omaha, and were involved in a variety of trades and businesses, including banks, wholesale houses, and funeral homes. The Notre Dame Academy and Convent and Czechoslovak Museum are legacies of their residence.
In 1909 mob violence forced the Greek immigrant population to flee from the city. Around the turn of the 20th century, violence towards new immigrants often erupted out of suspicions and fears. Six years after the Greek Town Riot, in 1915, a Mexican immigrant named Juan Gonzalez was killed by a mob near Scribner, a town in the Greater Omaha metropolitan area. The event occurred after an Omaha Police Department officer was investigating a criminal operation selling goods stolen from the nearby railroad yards. Racial profiling targeted Gonzalez as the culprit. After escaping the city, he was trapped along the Elkhorn River, where the mob, including several policemen from Omaha, shot him more than twenty times. Afterward it was discovered that Gonzalez was unarmed, and that he had reliable alibi during the time of the murder. Nobody was ever indicted in his case.
Today the legacy of the city's early European immigrant populations is evident in many social and cultural institutions in Downtown and South Omaha. The African-American community has maintained its social and religious base, while it is currently experiencing an economic revitalization.
A growing number of African immigrants have made their homes in Omaha in the last twenty years. There are approximately 8,500 Sudanese living in Omaha, comprising the largest population of Sudanese refugees in the United States. Most have immigrated since 1995 because of warfare in their nation. Ten different tribes are represented, including the Nuer, Dinka, Equatorians, Maubans and Nubians. Most Sudanese people in Omaha speak the Nuer language. Other Africans have immigrated to Omaha as well, with one-third from Nigeria, and significant populations from Kenya, Togo, Cameroon and Ghana.
With the expansion of railroad and industrial jobs in meatpacking, Omaha attracted many new immigrants and migrants. As the major city in Nebraska, it has historically been more racially and ethnically diverse than the rest of the state. At times rapid population change, overcrowded housing and job competition have aroused racial and ethnic tensions. The Greek Town Riot in 1909 flared after increased Greek immigration, Greeks' working as strikebreakers, and the killing of an Irish policeman provoked violence among earlier immigrants such as ethnic Irish. By 1910, 53.7 percent of Omaha’s residents and 64.2 percent of South Omaha’s residents were foreign born or had at least one parent born outside of America. In the fall of 1919, following Red Summer, postwar social and economic tensions, the earlier hiring of blacks as strikebreakers, and job uncertainty contributed to a mob from South Omaha lynching Willy Brown and the ensuing Omaha Race Riot. The city's mayor, Edward Parsons Smith, was lynched also, surviving only after a quick rescue.
Similar to other industrial cities in the U.S., Omaha suffered severe job losses in the 1950s, more than 10,000 in total, as both the railroad and meatpacking industries restructured. Stockyards and plants were located closer to ranches, and union achievements were lost as wages declined in surviving jobs. Many workers left the area if they could get to other jobs. Poverty deepened in areas of the city whose residents had depended on those jobs, specifically North and South Omaha. At the same time, with reduced revenues, the city had less financial ability to respond to longstanding problems. Despair after the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. in April 1968 contributed to riots in North Omaha, including one at the Logan Fontenelle Housing Project. For some, the Civil Rights Movement in Omaha, Nebraska evolved towards black nationalism, as the Black Panther Party was involved in tensions in the late 1960s. Organizations such as the Black Association for Nationalism Through Unity became popular among the city's African-American youth. This tension culminated in the cause célèbre trial of the Rice/Poindexter Case, in which an Omaha Police Department officer was killed by a bomb while answering an emergency call.
Whites in Omaha have followed the white flight pattern, suburbanizing to West Omaha over time. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, gang violence and incidents between the Omaha Police Department and members of the African-American community aggravated relations between groups in north and South Omaha. More recent Hispanic immigrants, concentrated in South Omaha, have struggled to earn living wages in meatpacking, adapt to a new society, and deal with discrimination.
According to USA Today, Omaha ranks eighth among the nation's 50 largest cities in both per-capita billionaires and Fortune 500 companies. Major employers in the area include Alegent Health, Omaha Public Schools, First Data Corporation, Methodist Health System, Mutual of Omaha, ConAgra Foods, Nebraska Health System, Offutt Air Force Base, and the West Corporation. With diversification in several industries, including banking, insurance, telecommunications, architecture/construction, and transportation, Omaha's economy has grown dramatically since the early 1990s. In 2001 Newsweek identified Omaha as one of the Top 10 high-tech havens in the nation. Six national fiber optic networks converge in Omaha.
Omaha's most prominent businessman is Warren Buffett, nicknamed the "Oracle of Omaha", who is regularly ranked one of the richest people in the world. Five Omaha-based companies: Berkshire Hathaway, ConAgra Foods, Union Pacific Railroad, Mutual of Omaha, and Kiewit Corporation, are among the Fortune 500.
Omaha is the headquarters of several other major corporations, including the Gallup Organization, TD Ameritrade, infoUSA Werner Enterprises and First National Bank. Many large technology firms have major operations or operational headquarters in Omaha, including Bank of the West, First Data, PayPal and LinkedIn. The city is also home to three of the 30 largest architecture firms in the United States, including HDR, Inc., DLR Group, Inc., and Leo A. Daly Co.. Despite this progress, as of October of 2007, the city of Omaha, the 42nd largest in the country, has the fifth highest percentage of low-income African Americans in the country.
Tourist attractions in Omaha include history, sports, outdoors and cultural experiences. Its principal tourist attractions are the Henry Doorly Zoo and the College World Series. The city has been a tourist destination for many years. Famous early visitors included British author Rudyard Kipling and General George Crook. In 1883 Omaha hosted the first official performance of the Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show for eight thousand attendees. In 1898 the city hosted more than 1,000,000 visitors from across the United States at the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition, a world's fair that lasted for more than half the year.
Research on leisure and hospitality situates Omaha in the same tier for tourists as the neighboring cities of Topeka, Kansas, Kansas City, Missouri, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, and Denver, Colorado. A recent study found that investment of $1 million in cultural tourism generated created approximately $83,000 in state and local taxes, and provided support for hundreds of jobs for the metropolitan area, which in turn led to additional tax revenue for government.
The city's historical and cultural attractions have been lauded by numerous national newspapers, including the Boston Globe and The New York Times. Omaha is home to the Omaha Community Playhouse, the largest community theater in the United States. The Omaha Symphony Orchestra and its modern Holland Performing Arts Center, the Opera Omaha at the Orpheum theater, the Blue Barn Theatre, and The Rose Theater form the backbone of Omaha's performing arts community. Opened in 1931, the Joslyn Art Museum has significant art collections. Since its inception in 1976, Omaha Children's Museum has been a place where children can challenge themselves, discover how the world works and learn through play. The largest urban artists' colony in the world, the Bemis Center for Contemporary Arts, was founded in Omaha in 1981, and the Durham Western Heritage Museum is accredited with the Smithsonian Institution for traveling exhibits. The annual Omaha Blues, Jazz, & Gospel Festival celebrates local music along with the Omaha Black Music Hall of Fame.
In 1955 Omaha's Union Stockyards overtook Chicago's stockyards as the United States' meat packing center, and this legacy is reflected in Omaha's renowned steakhouses. These include Gorat's and the recently closed Mister C's, and the retail chain Omaha Steaks.
The Henry Doorly Zoo is widely considered one of the premier zoos in the world. The zoo is home to the world's largest nocturnal exhibit and indoor swamp; the world's largest indoor rainforest, the world's largest indoor desert, and the largest geodesic dome in the world. The Zoo is Nebraska’s number one paid attendance attraction and has welcomed more than 25 million visitors over the past 40 years.
The Old Market is a major historic district in Downtown Omaha listed on the National Register of Historical Places. Today its warehouses and other buildings house shops, restaurants, bars, and art galleries. Downtown is also the location of the Omaha Rail and Commerce Historic District, which has several art galleries and restaurants as well. The Omaha Botanical Gardens features 100 acres (40 hectares) with a variety of landscaping, and the new Kenefick Park recognizes Union Pacific Railroad's long history in Omaha. North Omaha has several historical cultural attractions including the Dreamland Historical Project, Love’s Jazz and Art Center, and the John Beasley Theater. The annual River City Roundup is celebrated at Fort Omaha, and the neighborhood of Florence celebrates its history during "Florence Days". Native Omaha Days is a biennial event celebrating Near North Side heritage.
Religious institutions reflect the city's heritage. The city's Christian community has several historical churches dating from the founding of the city. There are also all sizes of congregations, including small, medium and megachurches. Omaha hosts the only Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints temple in Nebraska, along with a significant Jewish community. There are 152 parishes in the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Omaha, and several Orthodox Christian congregations throughout the city.
Omaha's rich history in rhythm and blues, and jazz gave rise to a number of influential bands, including Anna Mae Winburn's Cotton Club Boys and Lloyd Hunter's Seranaders. Rock and roll pioneer Wynonie Harris, jazz great Preston Love, drummer Buddy Miles, and Luigi Waites are among the city's homegrown talent. Doug Ingle from the late 1960s band Iron Butterfly is also from Omaha. Contemporary music groups either located in or originally from Omaha include Mannheim Steamroller, Bright Eyes, The Faint, Cursive, Azure Ray, Tilly and the Wall and 311. The late indie-folk singer/songwriter Elliott Smith was also from Omaha. During the late 1990s, Omaha became nationally known as the birthplace of Saddle Creek Records, and the subsequent "Omaha Sound" was born from their bands' collective style. Omaha also has a fledgling hip hop scene. Long-time bastion Houston Alexander, a one-time graffiti artist and professional Mixed Martial Arts competitor, is currently a local hip-hop radio show host. Cerone Thomas, known as "Scrybe," has had a number one single on college radio stations across the United States.
A long heritage of ethnic and cultural bands have come from Omaha. The Omaha Black Music Hall of Fame celebrates the city's long history of African-American music and the Strathdon Caledonia Pipe Band carries on a Scottish legacy. Internationally renowned classical conductor Antonín Dvořák wrote his 9th Symphony: From The New World in 1893 based on his impressions of the region after visiting Omaha's robust Czech community. In the period surrounding World War I Valentin J. Peter encouraged Germans in Omaha to celebrate their rich musical heritage, too. Frederick Metz, Gottlieb Storz and Frederick Krug were influential brewers whose beer gardens kept many German bands active.
The major daily newspaper in Nebraska is the Omaha World-Herald, which is the largest employee-owned newspaper in the United States. Weeklies in the city include The Reader, and Omaha Magazine, as well as The Omaha Star. Founded in 1938 in North Omaha, the Star is Nebraska's only African-American newspaper. The city is the focus of the Omaha designated market area, and is the 76th largest in the United States. Omaha's four television news stations were found not to represent the city's racial composition in a 2007 study. Cox Communications provides cable television services throughout the metropolitan area.
In 1939, the world premiere of the film Union Pacific was held in Omaha, Nebraska and the accompanying three-day celebration drew 250,000 people. A special train from Hollywood carried director Cecil B. DeMille and stars Barbara Stanwyck and Joel McCrea. Omaha's Girls and Boys Town was made famous by the Spencer Tracy and Mickey Rooney movie Boys Town. Omaha has been featured in recent years by a handful of relatively big budget motion pictures. The city's most extensive exposure can be accredited to Omaha native Alexander Payne, the Oscar-nominated director who shot parts of About Schmidt, Citizen Ruth and Election in the city and suburbs of Papillion and LaVista.
Built in 1962, Omaha's Cinerama was called Indian Hills Theater. Its demolition in 2001 by the Nebraska Methodist Health System was unpopular, with objections from local historical and cultural groups and luminaries from around the world. The Dundee Theatre is the lone surviving single-screen movie theater in Omaha and still shows films. A recent development to the Omaha film scene was the addition of Film Streams's Ruth Sokolof Theater in NoDo. The two-screen theater is part of the Slowdown facility. It features new American independents, foreign films, documentaries, classics, themed series, and director retrospectives. There are many new theaters opening in Omaha. In addition to the five Douglas Theatres venues in Omaha, two more are opening, including Midtown Crossing Theatres, located on 32nd and Farnam Streets by the Mutual of Omaha Building. Westroads Mall has opened a new cineplex with 14 screens, operated by Rave Motion Pictures.
Songs about Omaha include "Omaha" by the Counting Crows; "Omaha", by the indie rock band Tapes 'n Tapes, and; "Omaha", a song by Moby Grape from their 1967 album Moby Grape. The 1935 winner of the U.S. Triple Crown of Thoroughbred Racing was named Omaha, and after traveling the world the horse eventually retired to a farm south of the city.
Sports have a long history in Omaha. The Omaha Sports Commission is a quasi-governmental nonprofit organization that coordinates much of the professional and amateur athletic activity in the city, including the 2008 US Olympic Swimming Team Trials and the building of a new stadium in NoDo. The University of Nebraska and the Commission are co-hosting the 2008 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division One Women's Volleyball Championship in December., and the Commission has considered bidding to host the 2012 trials, as well. Another quasi-governmental board, the Metropolitan Entertainment and Convention Authority, was created by city voters in 2000, and is responsible for maintaining the Qwest Center Omaha.
Omaha's Johnny Rosenblatt Stadium is home to the Omaha Royals minor-league baseball team (the AAA affiliate of the Kansas City Royals). Since 1950, it has hosted the annual NCAA College World Series, or CWS, men's baseball tournament in mid-June. There are plans to move the CWS downtown to a new stadium, and for the Royals to leave the city.
Named in tribute to Omaha's meatpacking past, the Omaha Beef indoor football team plays at the Omaha Civic Auditorium. The Creighton University Bluejays compete in a number of NCAA Division I sports. Baseball and soccer are played at Morrison Stadium, while basketball is played at the Qwest Center. Ice hockey is a popular spectator sport in Omaha. The two Omaha-area teams are the Omaha Lancers, a United States Hockey League team that plays in the neighboring city of Council Bluffs at the Mid-America Center and the University of Nebraska at Omaha Mavericks, an NCAA Division I team that plays at the Qwest Center. Omaha has a thriving running community and many miles of paved running and biking trails throughout the city and surrounding communities. The Omaha Marathon involves a half-marathon and a race that take place annually in September.
Omaha is the birthplace of numerous important historical and modern sports figures, including 1960 Summer Olympics Gold Medalist and NBA star Bob Boozer; Baseball Hall of Famer Bob Gibson; 1989 American League Rookie of the Year Gregg Olson; NFL Running back Ahman Green; Heisman Trophy winners Johnny Rodgers, and Eric Crouch; Pro Football Hall of Famer Gale Sayers; and champion tennis player Andy Roddick.
The City of Omaha administers a parks and recreation department that oversees six regional parks, including Dodge Park and Gene Leahy Mall, and 13 community parks, including Miller Park and Hanscom Park. Part of Omaha's riverfront area is now the Heartland of America Park, including a marina, Miller's Landing, and the soon-to-open Missouri River Pedestrian Bridge, a footbridge crossing into Council Bluffs.
The city's historic boulevards were originally designed by Horace Cleveland in 1889 to work with the parks to create a seamless flow of trees, grass and flowers throughout the city. Florence Boulevard and Fontenelle Boulevard are among the remnants of this system. Omaha boasts more than of trails for pedestrians, bicyclists and hikers. They include the American Discovery Trail, which traverses the entire United States, and the Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail, which runs westward from Omaha across in 11 western states. Trails throughout the area are included in comprehensive plans for the city of Omaha, the Omaha metro area, Douglas County, and long-distance coordinated plans between the municipalities of southeast Nebraska.
|Professional Sports in Omaha|
|Omaha Royals||Baseball||AAA minor league||Rosenblatt Stadium|
|Omaha Beef||Indoor football||United Indoor Football||Omaha Civic Auditorium|
|Nebraska Extreme||Semi-professional football||American Professional Football League||Unknown|
Education in Omaha is provided by many private and public institutions. Omaha Public Schools runs the city's largest public school district and is the largest school district in Nebraska with more than 47,750 students in more than 75 schools. After a contentious period of uncertainty, in 2007 the Nebraska Legislature approved a plan to create a learning community for Omaha-area school districts with a central administrative board. The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Omaha maintains numerous private Catholic schools with 21,500 students in 32 elementary schools and nine high schools. St. Cecilia Grade School in Midtown Omaha earned national distinction with the U.S. Department of Education Blue Ribbon School.
Creighton University is ranked the top non-doctoral regional college in the Midwestern United States by U.S. News and World Report. Creighton maintains a campus just outside of Downtown Omaha in the new NoDo district, and the Jesuit-run institution has an enrollment of around 6,700 in its undergraduate, graduate, medical, and law schools. There are more than 10 other colleges and universities in Omaha in the Omaha metro area.
Omaha has a strong mayor form of government, along with a city council that is elected from seven districts across the city. The current mayor is Michael Fahey, who was elected in 2001 and reelected in 2005. In July 2008 Fahey announced he would not be seeking reelection for Mayor of Omaha in 2009. City Councilman Jim Suttle has announced the formation of an exploratory committee to run against Hal Daub, who was the Representative from the 2nd Congressional District and a former mayor of Omaha. The longest serving mayor in Omaha's history was "Cowboy" Jim Dahlman, who served 20 years over eight terms. He was regarded as the "wettest mayor in America" because of the flourishing number of bars in Omaha during his tenure. Dahlman was a close ally of notorious Omaha political boss Tom Dennison. During Dahlman's tenure the city switched from its original strong-mayor form of government to a city commission government. In 1956 the city switched back.
The elected city clerk is Buster Brown. The City of Omaha administers twelve departments, including finance, police, human rights, libraries and planning. The Omaha City Council is the legislative branch and is made up seven members elected from districts across the city. The council enacts local ordinances and approves the city budget. Government priorities and activities are established in a budget ordinance approved annually. The council takes official action through the passage of ordinances and resolutions. Nebraska’s constitution grants the option of home rule to cities with more than 5,000 residents, meaning they may operate under their own charters. Omaha is one of only two cities in Nebraska to use this option. The City of Omaha is currently considering consolidating with Douglas County government.
Despite having more Republican Party voters in the city, Democratic Party presidential candidate Barack Obama has opened a campaign office in Omaha with 15 staff members covering the entire state. At the opening of his campaign office in Omaha in September, more than 900 people attended the opening. Mike Fahey, the Democratic mayor of Omaha, said he'll do whatever it takes to deliver the electoral vote tied to the 2nd Congressional District to Obama. The Obama campaign considers Nebraska's 2nd "in play". Former Nebraska U.S. Senators Bob Kerrey and Ben Nelson have campaigned in the city.
The gas and water public utilities in Omaha are provided by the Metropolitan Utilities District. Nebraska is the only public power state in the nation. All electric utilities are non-profit and customer-owned. Electricity in the city is provided by the Omaha Public Power District. Public housing is governed by the Omaha Housing Authority, and public transportation is provided by Metro Area Transit. Qwest and Cox provide local telephone services. The City of Omaha maintains two modern sewage treatment plants.
Portions of the Enron corporation began as Northern Natural Gas Company in Omaha. Northern provides three natural gas lines to Omaha currently. Enron formerly owned UtiliCorp United, Inc., which became Aquila, Inc.. Peoples Natural Gas, a division of Aquila, Inc., currently serves several surrounding communities around the Omaha metropolitan area, including Plattsmouth.
There are several hospitals in Omaha. Research hospitals include the Boys Town National Research Hospital, the University of Nebraska Medical Center and the Creighton University Medical Center. The Boys Town facility is well-known for world-class researchers in hearing-related research and high quality treatment. The University of Nebraska Medical Center hosts the Eppley Institute for Research in Cancer and Allied Diseases, a world-renowned cancer treatment facility named in honor of Omahan Eugene Eppley.
Omaha's central role in the history of transportation across America earned it the nickname "Gate City of the West. Despite President Lincoln's decree that Council Bluffs be the starting point for the Union Pacific Railroad, construction began from Omaha on the eastern portion of the first transcontinental railroad. By the middle of the 20th century, Omaha was served by almost every major railroad. Today, the Omaha Rail and Commerce Historic District celebrates this connection, along with the listing of the Burlington Train Station and the Union Station on the National Register of Historic Places. First housed in the former Herndon House, the Union Pacific Railroad's corporate headquarters have been in Omaha since the company began. Their new headquarters, the Union Pacific Center, was opened in Downtown Omaha in 2004. Amtrak, the national passenger rail system, provides service through Omaha.
Omaha's position as a transportation center was finalized with the 1872 opening of the Union Pacific Missouri River Bridge linking the transcontinental railroad to the railroads terminating in Council Bluffs. In 1888 the first road bridge, the Douglas Street Bridge, opened. In the 1890s, the Illinois Central drawbridge opened as the largest bridge of its type in the world. Omaha's Missouri River road bridges are now entering their second generation, including the Works Progress Administration-financed South Omaha Bridge, now called Veteran's Memorial Bridge, which was added to the National Register of Historic Places. In 2006 Omaha and Council Bluffs announced joint plans to build the Missouri River Pedestrian Bridge, which is expected to become a city landmark at its scheduled opening in November 2008.
Today the primary mode of transportation in Omaha is by car, with I-80, I-480, I-680, I-29, and U.S. Route 75 (JFK Freeway and North Freeway) providing freeway service across the metropolitan area. The expressway along West Dodge Road (U.S. Route 6 and Nebraska Link 28B) and U.S. Route 275 has been upgraded to freeway standards from I-680 to Fremont. Metro Area Transit runs a number of bus routes throughout the city.
Omaha is laid out on a grid plan, with 12 blocks to the mile with an east to west house numbering system. Omaha is the location of a historic boulevard system designed by H.W.S. Cleveland who sought to combine the beauty of parks with the pleasure of driving cars. The historic Florence and Fontenelle Boulevards, as well as the modern Sorenson Parkway, are important elements in this system.
Eppley Airfield, Omaha's airport, serves the region with over 4.2 million passengers in 2006. United Airlines, Southwest Airlines, US Airways, Continental Airlines, Northwest Airlines, Delta Airlines, Midwest Airlines, American Airlines, Frontier Airlines, ExpressJet Airlines, and Mesa Airlines serve the airport with direct and connecting service. Eppley is situated in East Omaha, with many users driving through Carter Lake, Iowa and getting a view of Carter Lake before getting there. General aviation airports serving the area are the Millard Municipal Airport, North Omaha Airport and the Council Bluffs Airport. Offutt Air Force Base is a military base to the south of the city.
Omaha's tallest building is the 45-story First National Bank Tower. As of December 2007, construction has begun on the WallStreet Tower Omaha in place of the old Union Pacific Building. It will be the third tallest upon completion at . Completed in 1969, the 30-story tall Woodmen Tower was the tallest until the construction of the First National Bank Tower.
|One First National Center||45||634 ft (193 m)|
|Woodmen Tower||30||478 ft (146 m)|
|Masonic Manor||22||320 ft (98 m)|
|Union Pacific Center||19||317 ft (97 m)|
|First National Center||22||295 ft (90 m)|
|Mutual of Omaha Building||14||285 ft (87 m)|
|AT&T Building||16||265 ft (81 m)|
|Northern Natural Gas Building||19||260 ft (79 m)|
|1200 Landmark Center||15||255 ft (78 m)|
|Omaha World Herald Building||16||250 ft (76 m)|
Omaha is the historic and modern birthplace and home of notable politicians, actors, musicians, business leaders, sportsmen and cultural leaders. Numerous actors, including Gabrielle Union, Montgomery Clift, Fred Astaire and Adele Astaire, Dorothy McGuire, Marlon Brando and Nick Nolte, were born in Omaha. Academy Award winner Henry Fonda also grew up in Omaha. Marlon Brando's mother encouraged Henry Fonda to pursue acting at the Omaha Community Playhouse. His son Peter Fonda also briefly lived in Omaha. Mrs. Brando had helped found the playhouse. His family's home still stands on South 33rd Street, a few blocks from the site of the first home of Gerald Ford.
Tennis player Andy Roddick, former ATP ranking leader, was born in Omaha. Omaha's rich musical history produced legends such as Wynonie Harris, Preston Love, Buddy Miles, Calvin Keys, Eugene McDaniels and others. Members of 311 and Bright Eyes are part of the modern music scene. Chip Davis and Mannheim Steamroller began in and still headquarter out of Omaha.
Warren Buffett, in 2008 the richest man in the world, lives in Omaha where he made his fortune in business. Two native sons who achieved prominence nationally were born in Omaha, with their families moving away shortly thereafter. The Gerald Ford birthplace site memorializes the 38th President. Activist and son of a Baptist minister, Malcolm X, first known as Malcolm Little, was also born here. Joining dozens of other important Omaha landmarks, the Malcolm X House Site has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places.