There are two basic kinds of nougat: white and brown. White nougat is made with beaten egg whites and is soft, whereas brown nougat (called nougatine in French) is made with caramelized sugar and has a firmer, often crunchy texture.
The "nougat" used as an ingredient in many modern candy bars is not similar to traditional recipes, but is a mixture of sucrose and corn syrup aerated with a whipping agent such as egg white or hydrolyzed soya protein or gelatine. It may also have vegetable fats and milk powder added, and is typically combined with nuts (usually peanuts), caramel or chocolate. In contrast, some European confections feature nougat as the primary component, rather than one of several. Three Musketeers, Milky Way, Mars, Snickers, Reese's Fast Break, Reese's Whipps and Baby Ruth all have different types of nougat.
Australian nougat is produced by a similar method to French nougat but usually has a 50% almond content and no pistachios, although it can contain Macadamia nuts, apricots, or other texture modifiers. The nougat is commonly produced in two varieties: soft and crunchy. During candy making, this is done by heating a sugar solution to different temperatures before folding in egg whites and honey.
"Wiener (Viennese) Nougat", or, in German, "Schmelz-Schokolade" (molten chocolate) is a variant which contains only sugar, cocoa butter, almonds, and cocoa mass, and has a mellow consistency. In Germany, gianduia is traditionally called nougat.
Persian nougat, known as gaz, is a variety that has been produced in Isfahan, Iran for many centuries by Ashrafi nougat and other traditional producers. It contains the sugary extract of the root of Tamarix. A special kind of Gaz is referred to as Nogha (نوقا) in Persian. Nogha is almost exclusively made with walnuts instead of pistachios & almonds which are usual for other types of Gaz. The making of Nogha is very much the same as any other Gaz. The difference is that Nogha is usually spread between two very thin layers of wafers and cut into 10x5x5cm sections which are larger than ordinary Gaz cubes.
There are two types of African nougat, or nougati, ranging from the white kurtzati to the black baxtiti, and mainly containing fruits rather than nuts. The higher fruit-to-nut ratio can be most prominent in the brown simchati nougat variety.