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In 1235 Henry III constituted it a free borough, granting a guild merchant and other privileges. In 1251 he leased it at fee-farm to the burgesses. In 1265 Newcastle was granted by the Crown to Simon de Montfort, and subsequently to Edmund Crouchback, through whom it passed to Henry IV. In John Leland's time the castle had disappeared "save one great Toure".
Newcastle did not feature much in the English Civil War, save a Royalist plundering. During the Civil War, Major Thomas Harrison a Cromwellian army officer and leader of the fanatical Fifth Monarchy Men, rose to prominence.
The governing charter in 1835 which created the Newcastle-under-Lyme Municipal Borough absorbed the previous borough created through the charters of 1590 and 1664, under which the title of the corporation, was the "mayor, bailiffs and burgesses of Newcastle-under-Lyme."
Following the Local Government Act 1972 it became the principal settlement of the Borough of Newcastle-under-Lyme.
The manufacture in the borough of clay tobacco smoking pipes started about 1637 and grew rapidly and was second only to hatting within the borough. Nationally, the town was ranked with Chester, York and Kingston upon Hull as the four major pipe producers. This industry continued until the mid-19th century when decline set in rapidly and by 1881 only one tobacco pipe maker was left.
In the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries the town had a flourishing felt hat manufacturing industry, which was probably at its peak locally in the 1820s when a third of the town's population were involved in the industry in over 20 factories but by 1892 there was only one manufacturer still in production in the town.
There have been two particularly notable Members of Parliament (MPs). Josiah Wedgwood IV was a Liberal, Independent and Labour Party MP, who served as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster in the cabinet of Ramsay MacDonald, in the first ever Labour government. He was an MP from 1909 to 1942. John Golding was elected as a Labour MP for Newcastle-under-Lyme at a by-election in 1969. He served in the governments of Harold Wilson and Jim Callaghan, as PPS to Eric Varley as Minister of Technology, a Labour whip in opposition, and Minister for Employment, stepping down in 1986. The current MP is Paul Farrelly.
|Comparative Census Information|
|2001 UK Census||Newcastle-under-Lyme||Borough||England|
62.2% (21,586) of the population work full time and 19.4% (6,746) part time. The largest employment types are manufacturing with 7,058 (21.5%), wholesale and retail 6,157 (18.7%), health and social work 4,097 (12.5%) and financial, real estate & business activity 3,823 (11.6%).
Jewish residency of the area stretches back into the 19th century. In 1873 they purchased an old Welsh chapel to be used as a synagogue. In 1923 a new synagogue was built in Hanley. This was closed in 2004 and the Congregation moved to a smaller synagogue in Newcastle.
Near the turn of 21st century, the town received a major redevelopment to incorporate a new street (Castle Walk) in to the town centre, providing Newcastle with a new bus station and bringing in more companies.
A large number of pubs, clubs and bars provide Newcastle with a relatively strong nightlife, with students' night being on Wednesdays.
Newcastle-under-Lyme is served by the M6 motorway to the south and west of Newcastle and by the A500 road to the north and east. There are access points from the M6 at junctions 15 and 16, to the south and north respectively. The A34 trunk road runs through Newcastle from north to south and was the main road between Birmingham and Manchester until the M6 motorway opened. There is a large bus station in the town centre.
Newcastle does not have a railway station within the town, however Stoke-on-Trent railway station is located in-between Newcastle and Stoke, serving the Potteries as a whole. It is located on the West Coast Main Line.
To the north west of the town centre is Brampton Park, home to the museum and art gallery.
Dating back to 1173 Newcastle’s market known as The Stones operates on High Street. The market was originally held on Sunday; in the reign of John it was changed to Saturday; by the charter of Elizabeth it was fixed on Monday. Grants of fairs were given by Edward I, Edward III and Henry VI. Today the market is open six-days a week, there are over 80 stalls on this open-air market. Mondays, Wednesdays, Fridays and Saturdays see a general market, on Tuesdays there is an antiques market and Thursdays are for the sale of bric-a-brac.
The Borough Museum and Art Gallery depicts the civic history of the Borough of Newcastle under Lyme and an authentic, life-size Victorian street-scene whilst the art gallery hosts work by local and national artists as well as ‘travelling’ exhibitions. Until 2005, there was an annual carnival held on the Spring Bank Holiday but this has been cancelled due to rising policing costs.
Notable residents who contributed to the arts and entertainment include Philip Astley, founder of the ‘modern’ circus. Jackie Trent singer and songwriter was born in the town. Arnold Bennett the novelist, playwright, and essayist completed his schooling at the Middle School and called the town Oldcastle in his novels. Dinah Maria Mulock who wrote under her married name of Mrs. Craik, lived in the town in Lower Street and Mount Pleasant and attended Brampton House Academy. E S Turner, the social commentator was educated in the town.
The town itself has a large number of Anglican churches including St. Giles' Church, the mediæval parish church dating from 1290, as well as several Catholic churches, most notably Holy Trinity, whose style is Gothic in blue engineering bricks, described as... "the finest modern specimen of ornamental brickwork in the kingdom" at the time.
In the 18th century John Wesley made repeated visits to the area which was becoming more industrialised. He recruited many residents to Methodism. This is reflected in the large number of Methodist churches. The largest Baptist church in North Staffordshire is in Newcastle.
Of interest also is The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (Mormon), located across from the Brampton Park, which serves as the 'stake centre' for the church in the region and has an on-site Family History Centre where the public can research their ancestry for little or no charge.
This small international network of just eight towns, formed in 1998, is designed to encourage friendship and co-operation between the towns and to this end a school in the South African town benefited in 2004 from gifts of computing equipment surplus to Newcastle-under-Lyme's needs. The annual Newcastles of the World Summit was held in Newcastle-under-Lyme for six days from June 17 2006.
In Newcastle-under-Lyme, England, the local council has introduced a mandatory recycling scheme that calls for residents to separate trash into nine bins, with different containers for paper, clothing, cardboard, garden waste, and household slop, among other categories.(Brickbats)(Brief article)
Oct 01, 2010; [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] In Newcastle-under-Lyme, England, the local council has introduced a mandatory recycling scheme...
American Air Liquide Holdings Inc., an affiliate of Air Liquide, Newcastle-under-Lyme, U.K., has finalized the purchase of Scott Specialty Gases Inc., Plumsteadville, Pa., an international producer of specialty gases and gas delivery systems.(Mergers & Acquisitions)
Mar 01, 2008; American Air Liquide Holdings Inc., an affiliate of Air Liquide, Newcastle-under-Lyme, U.K., has finalized the purchase of...
Long Leg of the Law; Sobering Sight: Police Officers and Christmas Revellers Chat with a Stilt-Walker outside a Pub in Newcastle-under-Lyme Blazing: A Fire-Eater Performs
Dec 22, 2008; Byline: Julie Moult IT'S a sight more befitting a circus ring than a busy night out. But these were the scenes as one police...