|Form of Government||Parliamentary Federal Republic|
|Founding Document||Declaration of a New Republic|
|Constitution||New Republic Common Charter|
|Head of State||Chief of State|
|Heads of Government||Chief of State, Chair of the Senate|
|Commanders-in-Chief||Chief of State (civilian), Supreme Commander (primus inter pares)|
|Legislative Branch||Provisional Council (5-7 ABY), New Republic Senate, Inner Council (5-11 ABY)|
|Executive Branch||Chief of State (de facto), Provisional Council, New Republic Senate, General Ministry, Inner Council, Ruling Council, Advisory Council|
|Judicial Branch||Court of Justice, Regional Courts|
|Capital||Coruscant (Mostly), Da Soocha V (destroyed), Nespis VIII,|
|Formed from||Alliance of Free Planets|
|Reorganization into Galactic Federation of Free Alliances||27 ABY|
|Currency||Galactic Credit Standard (Republic Dataries)|
When the Rebel Alliance re-established the Old Galactic Republic after the downfall of the Galactic Empire, it became known as the New Republic, just as the original Galactic Republic had become known as the Old Republic by that time. The New Republic was founded on the same premise that the Old Republic had been established twenty-five thousand years previously: to have a representative parliamentary body govern the galaxy in a fair and equal manner. It was designed to eradicate the shortcomings that brought about the Old Republic's downfall. The New Republic was protected by the New Jedi Order that was established by Jedi Master Luke Skywalker, just as the Old Republic was once protected by the Old Jedi Order.
Although this description of the New Republic is considered canonical, any further details of the New Republic are explained solely in the Expanded Universe.
"The New Republic is a mutual self-protection pact among over four hundred sentient species, and an economic partnership between eleven thousand inhabited worlds."
—Chief of State Leia Organa Solo
Furthermore, the New Republic Senate, fearing the federal consolidation of power that the Imperial Starfleet permitted, badly underfunded the New Republic Defence Force for many years. The situation reached critical levels in the Black Fleet Crisis where the entire NRDF had mere thousands of warships (as opposed to the millions of the Empire). It was not until some years after the peace treaty with the Imperial Remnant, the Senate finally authorized increased defense expenditure. Sensing weakness, the Yuuzhan Vong began their long-planned extragalactic invasion with nearly disastrous consequences.
Political infighting and weak leadership led the New Republic to a great number of defeats in the war and that government would not long survive the fall of Coruscant. Some time after the Yuuzhan Vong capture of Coruscant, it completely reorganized into the Galactic Federation of Free Alliances, or the Galactic Alliance for short, following its alliance with the Imperial Remnant and also, to an extent, with the Chiss, an insular civilization from the Unknown Regions on the edge of the galaxy.
The Battle of Endor and the death of the Emperor four years after the Battle of Yavin signaled the end of the Empire. One month later, the Declaration of a New Republic was issued by eight of the most important members of the Rebel Alliance setting forth the goals, values, and ideals of the new government. These eight, Mon Mothma of Chandrila, Princess Leia Organa of the now gone Alderaan, Borsk Fey'lya of Kothlis, Admiral Ackbar of Mon Calamari, Sian Tevv of Sullust, Doman Beruss of Corellia, Kerrithrarr of Kashyyyk, and Verrinnefra B’thog Indriummsegh of Elom, became the first Inner Council of the New Republic provisional government, the Provisional Council.
The main goal of the New Republic during the time of the Provisional Council was to capture Coruscant. At the time, the Provisional Council, and therefore the New Republic, did not have an official designated seat of government or capital world. Instead, the Provisional and Inner Councils met on various member worlds, such as Noquivzor. To move the government to Coruscant would be more symbolic than strategic, and would establish the legitimacy of the New Republic, for the seat of galactic government had always been on Coruscant since the beginning of the Republic. Until then, the Provisional Government’s goals would be to provide guidance for the new government and to work out a new series of principles and laws.
“Today we become a galactic family –- a family of the great and the small, the young and the old, with honor to all and favor to none.”
Mon Mothma became the Chief of State of the New Republic, and under the new Charter, also the President of the Senate and the Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces. During her administration, the New Republic government remained very similar and weak to that of the provisional government, with the New Republic Senate Assembly assuming the duties of the Provisional Council and with the Inner Council at its head.
The Senate was able to provide the protection and guidance necessary to end the threat posed by the Empire following the return of Grand Admiral Thrawn nine years after the Battle of Yavin. However, it was not able to defend against a major Imperial counteroffensive lead by a resurrected Emperor that saw the recapture of Coruscant a year after Thrawn’s death, and thus the New Republic found itself again on the run and defeated.
The Inner Council was replaced by the Ruling Council made up of the chairpersons of the eight Senate councils, with the power to remove the Chief of State from office to protect against having the head of government become too powerful, as Palpatine did as Supreme Chancellor.
During the Second Senate, Mon Mothma retired from public life and named Princess Leia Organa Solo her successor. With the approval of the Senate, Organa Solo became the second Chief of State of the New Republic.
Many important events with long lasting repercussions occurred during the presidency of Organa Solo. The most important of these was the opening of diplomatic talks with the Duskhan League, an alliance of Yevethan worlds in the Koornacht Cluster. This in turn led to what is commonly referred to as The Black Fleet Crisis, during which Organa Solo extended the power of the Chief of State, amidst two petitions of recall from the Ruling Council and a petition of no confidence in the Senate, in order to protect the capital from the Yevethans and their ruthless campaign against the impotent New Republic leadership.
Also, around this time, many former Imperial worlds petitioned for and were granted membership to the New Republic. However, many of these worlds retained their individual governments and generally caused deadlock within the Senate.
Finally, after being criticized for New Republic involvement in the Koornacht Cluster, Almania (during which the Senate Hall was destroyed), and the Corellian System, and because of discord within the Senate, especially between the traditional and pro-Imperial senators, Chief of State Leia Organa Solo took an indefinite leave of absence, upon which the Calibop senator Ponc Gavrisom was chosen as the caretaker Chief of State.
Another development made during the restructuring was the creation of the New Republic Observers, an organization that functioned much like the Jedi Order during much of the Republic. The job of the Observers was to move about the New Republic and to report to the Senate what they saw or heard, especially with regard to improper government activities that local authorities preferred to keep out of sight. This move was seen as an act of privacy disruption by some senators, furthering their dismay against the New Republic.
The major event of the Third Senate was the Caamas Document crisis, which threatened to begin a civil war between pro-Bothan and anti-Bothan factions of the New Republic. The crisis, which began with the uncovering of the Caamas Document at Wayland, ended with the signing of a final peace treaty between the New Republic and the Imperial Remnant, finally ending the thirty-seven year Galactic Civil War.
Affiliate (non-voting) membership is available to subordinate political units (for example, the individual members of a league of worlds) and to duly recognized representatives of sentient species not constituting a political unit.
Observer (non-voting) membership is available to nonmember allies of the New Republic.
The Declaration of a New Republic sets forth the principles to which the New Republic is dedicated; the common Charter is the actual mechanism by which planets become members, and specifies both the rights and duties of members, and the various institutions of government and their powers. The common Charter was a creation of the transitional Provisional Council.
As a body with a large and potentially unlimited membership, the Senate-in-whole is an almost impossibly unwieldy structure for getting work done. Consequently, most of the real governance is performed by the Senate's councils, committees, and commissions. The daily business of the Senate proper is primarily speech-making and public debate. When the Senate meets as a committee of the whole, it is sometimes referred to as the New Republic Assembly. Councils are appointed bodies with autonomous decision-making and appropriation authority over some segment of government operations outside the Senate proper (for example, the Defense Council, which oversees the Navy). The most populous and powerful members of the New Republic are disproportionately represented on the Senate's councils. Committees are elected bodies with the authority to administer various aspects of Senate operations, including the general budget. They are semi-autonomous; in the event of a unanimous committee vote, the approval of the Senate-in-whole is not required (however, the Senate-in-whole may override a less-than-unanimous committee decision with a three-to-five majority). Commissions are voluntary bodies with an advisory capacity only. They may prepare reports on issues of concern for presentation to the President of the Senate, to the Minister of State, to the Supreme Commander, or to the general membership; schedule and conduct hearings; and contract for independent research.
(Tradition varies on the proper form of address for the President. Mon Mothma preferred "Chief of State," but the address has varied under Leia Organa Solo depending on context. In general, Senators, the Senate bureaucracy, and the Coruscant media refer to the President, while the General Ministry, member worlds, and the population of the New Republic often refer to the Chief of State, depending on local languages and history. Part of the problem and confusion arises from the lingering association of the term President with the last holder of that office before the Empire -- Senator Palpatine. Most of the subsequent Presidents of the Imperial Senate were designated by or chosen by vote of the senate or the Emperor. The term retains a certain stain; contributing to Organa Solo's difficulties during the recent crisis. The concerted effort by certain public relations aides to bring the term "President" into common use invoked old fears of Presidential tyranny. - Na'al.)
(Actually, the term President was never used before the fall of the Old Republic, the Head of State was the Supreme Chancellor, so any attempt to invoke fear of the President would not have referred to Palpatine, as a more effective term to bring into use would have been Chancellor, this would have been a term some were afraid of.)
The President can be recalled by a majority vote of the Senate on presentation of a petition of no-confidence by a majority of the Ruling, or Inner, Council, or by a quarter of the primary members of the Senate. The election of a President may be blocked by the Ruling Council on a unanimous vote. In practice, the power of the Ruling Council to void an election and initiate the recall of a sitting President means any candidate proposed by or approved by the Ruling Council is likely to be elected by the Senate. The Ruling Council consists of the chairmen of the Senate councils and the President of the Senate. The President may select any member of the Ruling Council to conduct the business of the Senate in his/her absence from that body.
If the president should become incapacitated, incommunicated, or die, the chairman of the Ministry Council selects an acting Chief of State from among the following: any former President, the current Minister of State, any former Minister of State.
The Cabinet consists of the heads of the various ministries and is headed by the Minister of State. This body is the link between the Chief of State and the Ministries.
The First Administrator, appointed by the Ministry Council with the approval of the President of the Senate, heads the New Republic General Ministry. He reports to the Chief of State.
Since the reorganization of the military into a single unified command, the former Minister of Defense is now called the Supreme Commander, and the posts of Minister of the Army and Minister of the Navy have been abolished.
The Supreme Commander, appointed by the Defense Council with the approval of the President of the Senate, heads the Defense Force. He reports to the Chief of State.
During the New Jedi Order series, the Yuuzhan Vong, an alien species from outside the known galaxy, invaded the New Republic, and over a series of incredibly bloody battles, destroyed the government. Through a mixture of unbelievable corruption and cowardice, the New Republic folded, leaving a loose coalition of Jedi and their allies as the last remaining defenders of the galaxy. Coruscant, the capital planet of the New Republic, was crushed by the Yuuzhan Vong and slowly turned into a bioengineered haven for their creations. Gradually, the coalition broadened, and the Galactic Alliance was created. Through the mysterious Jedi Vergere's teachings to Jacen Solo, the help of Cal Omas and the remains of the New Republic fleets, and the planet Zomana Sekot, the Yuuzhan Vong were defeated. The Galactic Alliance succeeded it as a mostly democratic government based on Mon Calamari under the leadership of Cal Omas, but after the victory over the Yuuzhan Vong they relocated to Coruscant. The government became a dictatorship under Darth Caedus (Jacen Solo). This new empire caused atrocities such as a Jedi massacre on Ossus and the orbital bombardment of Kashyyyk.