Naumburg (ˈnaʊ̯mbʊɐ̯k) is a town in Germany, on the Saale River. It is in the district Burgenlandkreis in the Bundesland of Saxony-Anhalt, formerly a part of East Germany. It is approximately southwest of Leipzig, south-southwest of Halle, and north-northeast of Jena.
Industries of the city include manufacture of foodstuffs, textiles, machinery and toys.
Naumburg is in a wine-growing region, with numerous vineyards in the surrounding area. SC Naumburg was a former football club in the town.
Naumburg was first mentioned in 1012 as the new castle of the Ekkehardinger, the Margrave of Meissen, was founded at the crossing of two trade-routes. The successful foundation not long beforehand of a Propstei Church on the site of the later Naumburger Cathedrial was mentioned in the Merseburger Bishops Chronicles in 1021. In 1028 Pope John XIX gave his approval for the transfer of the Bishopric from Zeitz to Naumburg. Until the Reformation (until 1568) Naumburg was the seat of the bishops. The last Catholic bishop was Julius von Pflug. The foundation of the Cathedral school is dated to 1030. Naumburg has been known as a town since 1144.
Naumburg was a significant trading centre on the Via Regia in the Middle Ages, especially through the Naumburger Trade Fairs, first known to have taken place in 1278. The emergence of Leipzig as a trade-fair centre from 1500 and the Thirty Years' War adversely affected the Naumburg economy.
The territory of the parish which was secularised in middle of the 16th century was handed over to the Dukes of Saxony, who administered the district through a government endowment (Stiftsregierung) and later provided administrators.
After the fraternal competition between the four brothers of John George I Elector of Saxony in 1657 the Naumburger administrative area belonged to the secondogeniture area of Saxony-Zeitz, which the youngest son Moritz inherited.
Before the Moritzburg was built in Zeitz, the Naumburger city castle served as the residence of this line. This period came to an end with the death of the last Protestant representative of the line Saxony-Zeitz in the year 1718. The Naumburger administrative area reverted to the Dresdner Dukes of Saxony, it was thereby fully integrated into Albertine Saxony. However it remained until 1815 the seat of its own administrative authority (Consistory of the area Naumburg-Zeitz). After the Congress of Vienna in 1815, Naumburg was ceded to the Kingdom of Prussia, becoming part of the Province of Saxony. It gained control over the cathedral in 1832.
In 1846 the town was connected to the rail line from Halle to Erfurt, in 1889 to Artern and eventually in 1900 to Teuchern. On the 15th September 1892 a steam tram system opened in Naumburg. From the 2nd January 1907 it was converted to electrical operation.
Although industrialisation was only weakly developed, a workers' club was founded in 1848. During the 1920 Kapp Putsch five workers were killed. The establishment of the local Communist Party followed in December 1920. In the German Democratic Republic Naumburg was a site of mechanical engineering, pharmaceutical industry and the metal and shoe industries. Additionally, Naumburg was used as a garrison town by the Soviet Air Force. Unofficial figures indicate that one Soviet soldier per inhabitant was stationed in the barracks in Naumburg. The political changes in 1989 led to many demonstrations and gatherings in the churches of the city.
Historical population levels(ab 1960 31. December):
The most important architectural landmark of the town is the St. Peter and Paul Cathedral (also known as Naumburger Dom), an impressive late Romanesque and Gothic Cathedral, built between the 13th and 15th centuries. The early Gothic western gallery was built in 1250. The eastern gallery was added in the high Gothic style in the first half of the 14th Century. The Romanesque Crypt under the east gallery was established around 1170 and was part of an earlier building. Both of the east spires are composed of octagonal sections and have Baroque canopies. The pulpit dates from 1466. The southwestern spire was only completed in 1884; both western spires beside the western gallery are closely modelled on the spires of the cathedrals of Laon and Bamberg. Its interior includes windows from the Middle Ages, as well as the famous 13th century statues of the founders of the cathedral, Margrave Ekkehard and his wife Uta, with other local noblemen and women.
The western tower has been open to the public from Easter 2007, having been closed for some time for renovations.
Other attractions include:
Some parts of the medieval town fortifications survive, including the old town gate Marientor.
German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche spent his childhood and some of his later years in Naumburg in the family house, which is now a museum.