Myofibrils (obsolete term: sarcostyles) are cylindrical organelles, found within muscle cells. They are bundles of actomyosin filaments that run from one end of the cell to the other and are attached to the cell surface membrane at each end.
Actomyosin motors are important in muscle contraction (relying in this case on "classical myosins") as well as other processes like retraction of membrane blebs, filiopod retraction, and uropodium advancement (relying in this case on "nonclassical myosins").
The protein complex composed of actin and myosin is sometimes referred to as "actomyosin."
In striated muscle, such as skeletal and cardiac muscle, the actin and myosin filaments each have a specific and constant length on the order of a few micrometers, far less than the length of the elongated muscle cell (a few millimeters in the case of human skeletal muscle cells). The filaments are organized into repeated subunits along the length of the myofibril. These subunits are called sarcomeres. The muscle cell is nearly filled with myofibrils running parallel to each other on the long axis of the cell. The sarcomeric subunits of one myofibril are in nearly perfect alignment with those of the myofibrils next to it. This alignment gives rise to certain optical properties which cause the cell to appear striped or striated. In smooth muscle cells, this alignment is absent. Hence there are no apparent striations and the cells are called smooth.
The I bands appear lighter because these regions of the sarcomere mainly contain the thin actin filaments, whose smaller diameter allows the passage of light between them. The A band, on the other hand, contains mostly myosin filaments whose larger diameter restricts the passage of light. A stands for anisotropic and I for isotropic, referring to the optical properties of living muscle as demonstrated with polarized light microscopy.
The parts of the A band that abut the I bands are occupied by the both actin and myosin filaments (where they interdigitate as described above). Also within the A band is a relatively brighter central region called the H-zone (from the German helle, meaning bright) in which there is no actin/myosin overlap when the muscle is in a relaxed state. Finally, the A band is bisected by a dark central line called the M-line (from the German mittel meaning middle).
Passive Stiffness in Drosophila Indirect Flight Muscle Reduced by Disrupting Paramyosin Phosphorylation, but Not by Embryonic Myosin S2 Hinge Substitution
Dec 15, 2006; ABSTRACT High passive stiffness is one of the characteristic properties of the asynchronous indirect flight muscle (IFM) found in...