Muscimol is produced naturally in the mushrooms Amanita muscaria, Amanita pantherina, and Amanita gemmata, along with muscarine, muscazone, and ibotenic acid. Of these, only A. muscaria and A. pantherina are considered somewhat safe for human consumption, with the other being far more dangerous; however lethal poisonings have occurred from A. muscaria and A. pantherina as well. , It is thought that, in A. muscaria, the layer just below the skin of the cap contains the highest amount of muscimol, and is therefore the most psychoactive portion.
During a test involving rabbits connected to an EEG, muscimol showed a distinctly synchronized EEG tracing. This is substantially different from indolic psychedelics, as brainwave patterns will generally show a desynchronization. In higher doses (2mg/kg), the EEG will show characteristic spikes.
When used in vivo, muscimol will pass through the human body, and be excreted (as muscimol) in the subject's urine.
The psychoactive dose of muscimol is around 15-20mg for a normal person. . A Guide to British Psilocybin Mushrooms by Richard Cooper published in 1977 recommends a smaller dose, 8.5mg, and suggests that it is possible for this amount to be present in as little as 1g of dried A.muscaria. It goes on to say that determining a correct dose can be difficult as potency varies dramatically from one mushroom to the next.
LD50 rats: 4.5 mg/kg i.v, 45 mg/kg orally.
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