Marcel Simon, in his book, Verus Israel, argues that though the Rabbis use minim (pl. for minuth) to refer to any heresy, they often use it to designate "the autonomous Christian communities, to those which belong to Catholic Christianity, whether their membership is principally Jewish or otherwise. Between the minim and Jewish orthodoxy stands the whole bulk of orthodox Christian theology. The minim challenge the fundamental dogmas of Judaism and its whole ritual life. The rabbis held minim on a level similar to pagans (cf. for example, Tosef. Hull. II, 24). They are to be contrasted with posh'im.