Friedman, Milton, 1912-2006, American economist, b. New York City, Ph.D. Columbia, 1946. Friedman was influential in helping to revive the monetarist school of economic thought (see monetarism). He was a staff member at the National Bureau of Economic Research (1937-46, 1948-81) and an economics professor at the Univ. of Chicago (1946-82). Much of Friedman's early work is notable for its arguments against government economic controls. His writings dismissed Keynesian theories on consumption, price theory, inflation, distribution, and the money supply (see Keynes, John Maynard). His most famous empirical work is A Monetary History of the United States, 1867-1960, coauthored with Anna J. Schwartz (1963). The book charts the relationship between general price levels and economic cycles and the government's manipulation of the money supply. Friedman also predicted that the spending associated with government programs would interact with the "natural rate of unemployment" to result in the stagflation of the 1970s. Friedman was a prolific author; his other works included Capitalism and Freedom (1964, rev. ed. 1981), Politics and Tyranny (1985), and Monetarist Economics (1991). With his wife, Rose (1910?-2009), a Univ. of Chicago-educated free-market economist, he wrote Free to Choose (1981), The Tyranny of the Status Quo (1984), and the dual memoir Two Lucky People (1998). In 1976 he won the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, and he was an adviser to the Reagan administration in the 1980s. He also was a columnist for Newsweek (1966-84) and a frequent television commentator.

See biography by A. Hirsch and N. De Marchi (1990).

Berle, Milton, 1908-2002, American entertainer, b. New York City as Milton Berlinger. Berle first performed in vaudeville and on (1939-48) radio. His great success, however, came as television's first real star, and his broadly appealing comedy routines contributed significantly to the young medium's growing popularity. His successful weekly "Texaco Star Theater" (1948-54) earned him the nickname "Mr. Television." Also affectionately called "Uncle Miltie," Berle appeared in numerous movies, including Always Leave Them Laughing (1949), It's a Mad Mad Mad Mad World (1963), and Broadway Danny Rose (1984).

See his autobiography (1974).

Avery, Milton, 1893-1965, American painter, b. Altmar, N.Y. Avery moved to New York City in 1925. Bold massing of forms is characteristic of his figurative work, such as Poetry Reading (1957; Munson-Williams-Proctor Inst., Utica, N.Y.). His landscapes, including Green Sea (1954; Metropolitan Mus.), and his seascapes, such as Boathouse by the Sea (1959), verge on complete abstraction. Avery's paintings are both deceptively simple and powerful, displaying qualities of fantasy and poetic gaiety within the tradition of Matisse and becoming simpler and more subtle in his later years.

See study by H. Kramer (1962); exhibition catalog ed. by A. D. Breeskin (1969).

Glaser, Milton, 1929-, widely considered America's preeminent graphic designer of the last half of the 20th cent., b. New York City. After graduating (1951) from New York's Cooper Union Art School, he studied in Italy. In 1954 Glaser and three partners founded a groundbreaking New York design firm, the Push Pin Studio. From that point on, Glaser's ever-changing design work, which draws widely on art history, has had enormous international influence. He left Push Pin in 1974, opened his own design firm, and later (1984) became a partner in another New York studio. He was art director of New York magazine (1968-76) and the Village Voice newspaper (1975-77) and was responsible for the design of many other publications. Over the course of his long career, his creations have tended to change from hard-edged Pop and psychadelic designs to a softer, more expressionistic or naturalistic style. Glaser's work includes the creation of many posters, notably the iconic Bob Dylan silhouette (1966); book and record covers; book illustrations; type; corporate logos; interiors; and architectural projects. One of his most famous designs is the 1976 "I Love New York" logo.

See his The Milton Glaser Poster Book (1977), Milton Glaser: Graphic Design (rev. ed. 1998), and Art Is Work: Graphic Design, Interiors, Objects, and Illustrations (2000); S. Bass, Six Chapters in Design (1997) and P. B. Meggs, A History of Graphic Design (1997).

Milton, John, 1608-74, English poet, b. London, one of the greatest poets of the English language.

Early Life and Works

The son of a wealthy scrivener, Milton was educated at St. Paul's School and Christ's College, Cambridge. While Milton was at Cambridge he wrote poetry in both Latin and English, including the ode "On the Morning of Christ's Nativity" (1629). Although the exact dates are unknown, "L'Allegro" and "Il Penseroso" were probably written not long after this. His dislike of the increasing ritualism in the Church of England was the reason he later gave for not fulfilling his plans to become a minister. Resolved to be a poet, Milton retired to his father's estate at Horton after leaving Cambridge and devoted himself to his studies. There he wrote the masque Comus (1634) and "Lycidas" (1638), one of his greatest poems, an elegy on the death of his friend Edward King.

Political and Moral Tracts

In 1638 Milton went to Italy, where he traveled, studied, and met many notable figures, including Galileo. Returning to England in 1639, he supported the Presbyterians in their attempt to reform the Church of England. His pamphlets, which attacked the episcopal form of church government, include Of Reformation in England (1641) and The Reason of Church Government Urged against Prelaty (1642).

In 1643 Milton married Mary Powell, a young woman half his age, who left him the same year. Disillusioned by the failure of his marriage, he started work on four controversial pamphlets (1643-45) upholding the morality of divorce for incompatibility. His Areopagitica (1644), one of the great arguments in favor of the freedom of the press, grew out of his dissatisfaction with the strict censorship of the press exercised by Parliament.

Milton gradually broke away from the Presbyterians, and in 1649 he wrote The Tenure of Kings and Magistrates, which supported the Independents who had imprisoned King Charles in the Puritan Revolution. In it he declared that subjects may depose and put to death an unworthy king. This pamphlet secured Milton a position in Oliver Cromwell's government as Latin secretary for foreign affairs, and he continued to defend Cromwell and the Commonwealth government in his Eikonoklastes [the image breaker] (1649)—an answer to Eikon Basilike—and in the Latin pamphlets First Defense of the English People (1651), Second Defense of the English People (1654), and Defense of Himself (1655).

Later Life

In the midst of his heavy official business and pamphleteering, Milton, whose sight had been weak from childhood, became totally blind. From then on, he had to carry on his work through secretaries, one of whom was Andrew Marvell. Mary Powell returned to Milton in 1645 but died in 1652 after she had borne him three daughters. He married Catharine Woodcock in 1656, and she died two years later. She is the subject of one of his most famous sonnets, beginning, "Methought I saw my late espoused saint." In 1663 he married Elizabeth Minshull, who survived him. Milton supported the Commonwealth to the very end. After the Restoration (1660) he was forced into hiding for a time, and some of his books were burned. He was included in the general amnesty, however, and lived quietly thereafter.

Paradise Lost and Paradise Regained

For many years Milton had planned to write an epic poem, and he probably started his work on Paradise Lost before the Restoration. The blank-verse poem in ten books appeared in 1667; a second edition, in which Milton reorganized the original ten books into twelve, appeared in 1674. It was greatly admired by Milton's contemporaries and has since then been considered the greatest epic poem in the English language. In telling the story of Satan's rebellion against God and the story of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden, Milton attempted to account for the evil in this world and, in his own words, to "justify the ways of God to man."

Paradise Regained, a second blank-verse poem in four books, describes how Jesus, a greater individual than Adam, overcame the temptations of Satan. In both works, Milton's characterizations of Satan, Adam, Eve, and Jesus are penetrating and moving. Indeed, his portrayal of Satan is so compelling that many 19th-century critics maintained that he rather than Adam was the hero of Paradise Lost. In these two great works Milton's language is dignified and ornate, replete with biblical and classical allusions, allegorical representations, metaphors, puns, and rhetorical flourishes. Samson Agonistes, a poetic drama modeled on classical Greek tragedy but with biblical subject matter, appeared together with Paradise Regained in 1671.

Other Works

Milton's theology, although in the Protestant tradition, is extremely unorthodox and individual on many points; it is set forth in the Latin pamphlet De doctrina Christiana [on Christian doctrine]. Unpublished during Milton's lifetime, this work was discovered and published in 1825. Milton also wrote 18 sonnets in English and 5 in Italian, which generally follow the Petrarchan style and are accepted as among the greatest ever written.


See his complete works (ed. by F. A. Patterson, 20 vol., 1931-40); collections by F. A. Patterson (rev. ed. 1933), D. Bush (1965), and J. T. Shawcross (1971); variorum commentary on the poems (M. Y. Hughes, general editor; Vol. I, 1970; Vol. II, in 3 parts, 1972); Yale edition of his prose works (Vol. I-VI, 1953-73); biographies by W. A. Raleigh (1900, repr. 1967), J. H. Hanford (1949), W. R. Parker (2 vol., 1968, rev. ed. 1996), E. Wagenknecht (1971), B. K. Lewalski (2001), and G. Campbell and T. N. Corns (2008); studies by M. Nicolson (1963), D. Bush (1964), E. M. W. Tillyard (3 studies: 1938, repr. 1963; 1951, repr. 1960; and rev. ed. 1965), D. Daiches (1957, repr. 1966), J. M. Steadman (1967 and 1968), A. D. Ferry (1963 and 1969), J. T. Shawcross (1966, 1967, and 1970), F. Kermode (1960, repr. 1971), C. A. Patrides (1971), J. D. Simmonds, ed. (1969 and 1971), and A. Beer (2008).

See also J. H. Hanford and V. G. Taffe, A Milton Handbook (1970); L. Potter, A Preface to Milton (1972); J. Broadbent, ed., John Milton: Introductions (1973); M. Lieb and J. T. Shawcross, ed., Achievements of the Left Hand (1974).

Milton, town (1990 pop. 25,725), Norfolk co., E Mass., a residential suburb of Boston, on the Neponset River; settled 1636, set off from Dorchester and inc. 1662. Granite quarries are nearby. Milton is the seat of Curry College and several preparatory schools, including Milton Academy (1798). Harvard's meteorological observatory is on Blue Hill.
Babbitt, Milton, 1916-, American composer, b. Philadelphia. Babbitt turned to music after studying mathematics. He was a composition pupil of Roger Sessions at Princeton. Babbitt has attempted to apply twelve-tone principles to all the elements of composition: dynamics, timbre, and rhythm, as well as melody and harmony. He calls this "total serialization" (see serial music). In 1959, Babbitt became one of the directors of the new Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center in New York City. His works include Three Compositions for Piano (1947), three string quartets (1942, 1954, 1969-70), Composition for Synthesizer (1961), Philomel (1964) for soprano, taped soprano, and synthesizer, A Solo Requiem for soprano and piano, and Dual (1980) for cello and piano. In 1982 he received a special Pulitzer citation for the body of his work.
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