Michael IX Palaiologos
: Μιχαήλ Θ΄ Παλαιολόγος, Mikhaēl IX Palaiologos
), (April 17
), reigned as Byzantine co-emperor with full imperial style 1294/1295–1320. Michael IX was the eldest son of Andronikos II Palaiologos
and Anna of Hungary
, a daughter of King Stephen V of Hungary
Michael IX Palaiologos was acclaimed co-emperor in 1281 and was crowned in 1294 or 1295. In 1300, he was sent at the head of Alanian mercenaries against the Turks in Asia Minor
, and in 1304–1305 he was charged with dealing with the rebellious Catalan Company
. After the murder of the Catalan commander Roger de Flor
, Michael IX led the Byzantine troops (augmented by Turks and 5-8,000 Alanians) against the Catalans, but was defeated and wounded.
Michael IX was also ultimately unsuccessful against Theodore Svetoslav of Bulgaria in 1307, concluding peace in 1307 and marrying his daughter to the Bulgarian emperor. In 1311, Michael IX was defeated by Osman I. Michael IX eventually retired to Thessalonica, where he died in 1320.
A brave and energetic soldier willing to make personal sacrifices to pay or encourage his troops, Michael IX was generally unable to overcome his enemies and is the only Palaiologan emperor to predecease his father. Michael IX's premature death at age 43 was attributed in part to grief over the accidental murder of his younger son Manuel Palaiologos by retainers of his older son and co-emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos.
Michael IX Palaiologos married Rita of Armenia
(renamed Maria, later nun Xene), daughter of King Leo III of Armenia
and Queen Keran of Armenia
on 16 January
. By this marriage, Michael IX had several children, including: